1999. The ABCs of hiring PCAs.
Personal care attendant work pays little, and much of the work is menial - so the search for caring, competent, reliable people is arduous. Karen Breisky refers to her own experiences in offering tips for hiring assistants. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs4/breisky99.html.
CIB (International Council for Building Research)
1993. About CIB, and Contents of Documents.
This document presents the objectives, membership parameters, and activities of CIB, which stands for an abbreviation of the French title of the International Council for Building Research, Studies and Documentation, as well as links to proceedings from the six international CIB seminars. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/cib/index.html
Disability Awareness in Action (DAA)
1996. About Disability Awareness in Action.
Disability Awareness in Action (DAA) is an international public education campaign to promote, support and coordinate national action to further the objectives of the United Nations Decade of Disabled Persons (1983-1992) and the World Programme of Action Concerning Disabled Persons (WPA). DAA is a partnership between the following organizations: Disabled Peoples' International (DPI), IMPACT, International League of Societies of Persons with Mental Handicap (ILSMH), Rehabilitation International (RI), and World Federation of the Deaf (WFD). Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs2/daa-about.html
1999. About the Center of Independent Living Zürich.
Switzerland does not yet know the concept of personal assistance and provides almost no financial means to live outside institutions. The Swiss IL movement has an uphill battle. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs3/zfsl.html
Philippen, D P
1991. Access legislation.
Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/cib/cibbudapest25.html
Tsai, Joseph Y B
1992. Access legislation and barrier-free environments in Taiwan.
Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/cib/cibharare18.html
1992. Access legislation and enforcement mechanisms.
Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/cib/cibharare12.html
1991. Access legislation in the Czech Republic.
Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/cib/cibbudapest16.html
Dr. Adolf Ratzka
2018. Access to Justice.
Open mic event on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities ”Human Rights: a reality for all persons with disabilities?” European United Left/Nordic Green Left European Parliamentary Group European Parliament, Brussels October 17, 2018
1991. Access to services and facilities in the Canadian Parks Service.
Robert Fern of The Canadian Parks Service (CPS) in his presentation at the CIB Seminar in Budapest, 1991, describes the Canadian Parks Service's implementation of accessibility measures for disabled persons in the Canadian National Parks. The CPS Strategy and Action Plan emphasizes the need for persons who have hearing, visual and mobility impairments to have equal and, where possible, integrated access to park and site themes, recreational opportunities and essential services. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/cib/cibbudapest8.html
2000. Accessibility for All: The Australian Experience.
Maurice Corcoran’s article is an example and encouragement for the movement for Buses For All in other countries. In it, he traces the history leading up to the milestone decision of October 12, 2000 by the Australian Federal Cabinet, requiring all intra-city buses to be of low-floor type using boarding aids for wheelchair users in the form of ramps. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs1/corcoran2000.html
1992. Accessibility in South Africa.
Neville Cohen, of Chairman Industries in South Africa, notes in his paper that access and disability are broad terms, and that three steps should be taken prior to applying for legislation: to define requirements, to select a knowledgeable task force, and to locate influential advocates in the community. A history of building regulations in South Africa is given, followed by questions and answers concerning accessibility and national and cultural differences. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/cib/cibharare5.html
1991. Accessibility legislation - 1991.
Jon Christophersen, of the Building Research Institute in Norway, describes accessibility legislation, implementation, incentives for implementation and problems encountered in Norway. Two studies were carried out, one concerning access legislation in the building regulations and the other concerning life-span dwelling criteria. The results showed that accessibility in Norway could be improved through better workmanship and better control on site, improved legislation, and changing building practice. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/cib/cibbudapest4.html
1992. Accessibility legislation in Zambia.
Febby Chizima, of ZAFOD in Lusaka, Zambia, outlines the lack of accessibility in Zambia in public buildings, housing, and street environments. The need for awareness and legislation in these areas is also discussed. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/cib/cibharare4.html
Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission, Australia
2000. Accessibility of electronic commerce and new service and information technologies for older Australians and people with a disability - Report of the Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission on a reference from the Attorney-General.
Submissions and research have confirmed and added to the Commission’s initial understanding that digital technologies offer great potential in providing more effective and economical access to government and business information and services, and improved prospects for equal opportunity in many areas of life including education, for all Australians including older people and people with a disability. Work for this report has confirmed to the Commission that physical barriers, affordability and equipment access barriers, and attitudinal and awareness barriers are preventing some Australians with a disability and some older Australians from having equally effective access to e-commerce and other services using new technologies. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs4/hreo2000.html
Abdou, Safaa Issa M
1992. Accessible, adaptable low-cost housing in Egypt.
In: "Report of the Fifth International Expert Seminar on Building Non-Handicapping Environments: Access Legislation and Design Solutions, Harare, Zimbabwe, January 16-18, 1992." Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/cib/cibharare9.html. In Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/cib/cibharare1.html#anchor52685 Dr. Adolf Ratzka
2015. Accessible cities consist of barrier-free housing.
In this presentation Dr. Adolf Ratzka emphasizes that city and housing planners still do not pay sufficient attention to barrier-free housing for people with disabilities and proposes the goal of general accessibility in the housing stock, in both new construction an renovation. Drawing on Swedish experience he claims that general residential accessibility would also imply savings to society in the form of lower costs due to fewer residential accidents particularly in the older population.
Dunn, Peter A
1991. Accessible housing legislation and policies: A framework for future policy development.
This paper focuses on the range of policy and legislative issues which need to be tackled in order for countries to promote a barrier-free housing environment, while looking at housing rights and civil rights of people with disabilities. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/cib/cibbudapest6.htm
1999. Act calls for care choice.
Bob Kafka outlines the Medicaid Community Attendant Services Act, MiCASA. The bill would allow individuals the choice to use their entitlements for community-based services (personal assistance services). Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs4/kafka.html
Catholic Relief Services (CRS) Bosnia-Herzegovina,
2002. Activist Handbook.
Internet publication URLs: www.independentliving.org/docs7/crs-activist-handbook.html and www.independentliving.org/docs7/crs-activist-handbook.pdf (526 KB). crs-activist-handbook.pdf (525.99 KB)
1991. Adaptation of a theatre in Krakow, Poland.
In May 1991, the 19th century Slowackiego Theatre in Krakow, Poland was scheduled to host the International Conference on Security and Cooperation. This paper discusses adaptations made to parts of the building so that the needs and interests of people with disabilities could better be served. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/cib/cibbudapest15.html
Mates, Barbara T
2000. Adaptive Technology for the Internet: Making Electronic Resources Accessible to All - The Online Version.
American Library Association. ISBN 0-8389-0752-0. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs6/mates2000.html
Malinga, Joshua T
2003. The African View of Independent Living.
Joshua T. Malinga, Secretary General, Pan African Federation of the Disabled (PAFOD), and Past World Chairperson, Disabled Peoples' International (DPI) gives an overview of Indepedent Living in Africa. He concludes that, "Independent Living in Africa is basically in theory form and is still in its rudimental stages due to a number of factors." Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs6/malinga2003.html. In the forthcoming English version of: Alonso, J. Vidal Garcia. 2003. "El Movimiento de Vida Independiente, Experiencias Internacionales." ("The Independent Living Movement: International Experiences.") Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs6/alonso2003.pdf (In Spanish).
1991. The Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990: An activist's perspective.
In her presentation, Marilyn Golden of the Disability Rights and Education Defense Fund, U.S.A., talks about the series of laws against discrimination that the disability movement in the US has achieved, their limitations, and how they are enforced. An account is given of the extensive grass-roots activities and coalition building which took place prior to the enactment of the ADA of 1990. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/cib/cibbudapest11.html
United States of America
1990. Americans With Disabilities Act PUBLIC LAW 101-336 JULY 26, 1990 104 STAT. 327.
The ADA gives civil rights protections to individuals with disabilities that are like those provided to individuals on the basis of race, sex, national origin, and religion. Internet publication URLs: www.independentliving.org/docs3/ada.html, and www.independentliving.org/docs3/adapamph.html
Dr. Adolf Ratzka
2003. Angående Färdtjänstförvaltningens svar på min anmälan om diskriminering - Anmälan hos Handikappombudsmannen.".
Ärende Dnr 2003/990. Internet publication URLs: www.independentliving.org/taxi/ratzka20030911.html och www.independentliving.org/taxi/ratzka20030911.pdf (6 KB). (In Swedish.)
Dr. Adolf Ratzka
2017. Ansökan om stöd ur Allmänna arvsfonden till projektet Disabled Refugees Welcome.
Ansökan till Arvsfonden, inskickad juli 2016. Det finns mindre revideringar och kompletteringar som gjordes senare. Vi har inte översatt denna till engelska än (There is currently no english translation).
Dr. Adolf Ratzka
2017. Application for funding granted by the Swedish Inheritance Fund for the project Disabled Refugees Welcome.
This is a translated version of the application submitted in July 2016. There were minor revisions and additions made later missing from this document.
Independent Living Institute
2004. Assistansbrukares situation i Slovakien.
Lyssna-RealAudio (29:58 minuter, download-RealAudio, 9,89 MB). Programmet i text. Intervjuer med: Anton Benca, Lydia Brichtova, Ivana Camajova, Andrea Madunová och Milan Popovic. Internet publication URLs: www.independentliving.org/radio/assistans-slovakien.ram, www.independentliving.org/radio/assistans-slovakien.rm, och www.independentliving.org/radio/assistans-slovakien.html
2004. Assistansbrukares situation i Wien.
Lyssna-RealAudio (28:40 minuter, download-RealAudio, 9,46 MB). Programmet i text. Innslag av: Katharina Zabransky, Gerhard Wagner, Irmgard Kampas, Bernhard Hruska; redaktion: Gerhard Wagner. Medverkande: Bernadette Feuerstein, Martin Kopper, Gerda Ressl, Manuela Ressl, Peter Singer. Internet publication URLs: www.independentliving.org/radio/assistanswien-osterrike.ram, www.independentliving.org/radio/assistanswien-osterrike.rm, och www.independentliving.org/radio/assistanswien-osterrike.html
2007. Assistansutredningens delbetänkande - Hårdare tag mot användare av assistans"!.
Internet publikation URL: www.independentliving.org/docs7/anderberg200710b.html (In Swedish.)
Ericsson, Patricia, Ericsson Kent
1995. Att äga sin bostad.
Fyra män med begåvningshandikapp köpt sin egen bostad och där deras stöd förmedlas av personliga assistenter. (In Swedish.) Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs2/ericsson1995.html (In Swedish.)
1999. Att bestämma över vardagen - intervju av Adolf Ratzka.
I en intervju på DN:s Ledarsida efterlyser Adolf Ratzka en handikappolitik som bygger på egenmaktsperspektivet, en politik som inte tar ifrån människor deras självrespekt. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs5/friborg.html (In Swedish.)
1975. Att förneka eller acceptera funktionshinder.
Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs1/finkelsteinsv.html (In Swedish.)
Berg, Susanne, Jahanmahan Farhad
2004. ”Att göra väl eller välgörenhetsskrammel”. 2004-04, är ett radioprogram om insamlingars vara eller inte vara. Vem gagnar de egentligen?
1997 startar insamlingarna till kronprinsessan Viktorias fond. De donerade pengarna ska gå till att ge funktionshindrade en meningsfull fritid. Fonden blir droppen som får bägaren att rinna över för Förbundet Unga Rörelsehindrade och något år senare startar de själva Stackars Viktoria-fonden i ett motdrag. Välgörenhet är av ondo anser de. Men inom handikapprörelsen finns också andra åsikter. Lyssna-MP3 (27 minuter, 25,3 MB). Programmet i text. Deltagare: Jonas Franksson, Agneta Mbyamba, Veronica Svensk. Internet publication URLs: www.independentliving.org/radio/insamlingar2002.mp3 och www.independentliving.org/radio/insamlingar2002.html.
2005. Att leva ett självbestämt liv – berättelsen om en ung funktionshindrad man i Österrike.
Att leva ett självbestämt liv - berättelsen om en ung funktionshindrad man i Österrike. Lyssna-MP3-svensk (30:56 minuter, 29 MB), Lyssna-MP3-deutsch (28:49 minuter, 27 MB). Internet publication URLs: www.independentliving.org/radio/jochen-baumschlager.mp3, www.independentliving.org/radio/jochen-baumschlager-de.mp3, www.independentliving.org/radio/jochen-baumschlager-sv.html, www.independentliving.org/radio/jochen-baumschlager-en.html, www.independentliving.org/radio/jochen-baumschlager-de.html Dr. Adolf Ratzka
1988. Aufstand der Betreuten - Selbstrespekt als Richtschnur.
Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs4/ratzka88a.html (in German.)
Eilenberg, Ian M
1991. Australia takes tentative steps to take up the challenge of persons with disabilities.
This report by Ian M. Eilenberg, Victorian University of Technology, RMIT, Australia describes legislative steps taken in Australia to improve building regulations in order to promote accessibility and a "non-handicapping" environment. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/cib/cibbudapest7.html
2004. The Austrian Long-term Care Insurance.
Document for the ECEPA Project. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs7/brozek200409a.html
1998. Awakening to Disability - Nothing About Us Without Us.
Book review from Ability Network magazine. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs5/stonereview.html
1998. Back To Basics - Hampshire Center for Independent Living's Expert Seminar on Independent Living.
Back To Basics: Philip Mason's keynote speech at the expert seminar organized by the Hampshire CIL in Southampton, May 30 -31, 1998.
1993. The Ballad of Josie Evans.
An eloquent, heart-wrenching story of a woman who is abandoned by her government and everyone else to a solitary, but dignified, life and death in a nursing home. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs3/evans93.html
2000. Beijing Declaration on Disabled Persons in the New Millennium.
This editorial by Richard Light, Research & Publications Director of Disability Awareness in Action first presents the content of a resolution taken at the World NGO Summit on Disability in Beijing regarding an international convention on the rights of all disabled people. He then goes on to decry the number of expert conferences, special programmes and political initiatives that have failed to yield real progress with regard to action on discrimination against people with disabilities. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs6/light200003.html
1998. Beyond Ramps: Disability at the End of the Social Contract.
Book review courtesy Common Courage Press. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs5/RussellReview.html
1988. The Blind Afghan Child.
A young Afghan who was born blind in a remote village tells of his childhood and how he gained the skills to take part in community life and later to earn his living in a town. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs3/milesm1988a.html
2011. Blind and Sighted Pioneer Teachers in 19th Century China and India (revised edition).
This article introduces blind and sighted men and women who developed education and employment for blind people in China and in India from the 1830s onward, and whose pioneering efforts have disappeared from later accounts of blind people's history. This revised and much extended online version is published in April 2011: www.independentliving.org/docs7/miles201104.html and www.independentliving.org/docs7/miles201104.pdf miles201104Pioneer-Teach-Blind_v2.pdf (436.77 KB)
2000. Blind People Handling Their Own Fate.
Accounts of earlier social responses to blind people particularly in Japan, and to some extent in China, indicate a measure of both group and individual autonomy within reserved and valued occupations, ostensibly reflecting a status model more 'normal' than blind people enjoyed in much of European history. (Excerpt From: M. Miles (2000) Disability on a Different Model: Glimpses of an Asian Heritage.) Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs5/mmiles1.html
Brown, Steven E
1996. Book Review - Deviants, Invalids, and Anthropologists: Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Conditions of Disability in One Academic Discipline: A Review of Disability and Culture.
Dr. Steven E. Brown, Co-Founder of the Institute on Disability Culture, in the United States, critically reviewed the book Disability and Culture, edited by Benedicte Ingstad and Susan Reynolds Whyte. Disability and Rehabilitation: An international, multidisciplinary journal, First published in May 1996. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs3/brown96d.html.
1998. Boss in your own home: Client Linked Budget.
"Client-linked budget" is a system of direct payments for personal assistance services. This outlines the Dutch service, comparing it with "help in kind." Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs3/hardus.html
Dr. Adolf Ratzka
1998. Brief Description of the Swedish Personal Assistance Act of 1994 (LASS).
For the "International Survey of Personal Assistance Schemes." Internet publication URLs: www.independentliving.org/docs1/ratzka1998lass.html and www.independentliving.org/panetwork/questionnaire.html
Shields, Craig V
1988. A brief history of brokerage.
Service brokerage has a commitment to a set of values emphasizing the worth and dignity of individuals with disabilites and their right to live in the community. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/toolsforpower/tools27.html
Dr. Adolf Ratzka
1994. A brief survey of studies on costs and benefits of non-handicapping environments.
Presentation at the International Congress on Accessibility in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, June 1994. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/cib/cibrio94access.html
Finkelstein, Vic, Morrison Elspeth
1993. Broken Arts And Cultural Repair: The Role Of Culture In The Empowerment Of Disabled People.
A discussion of how human beings come together in groups to confirm their identity and how disability arts and culture enable people with disabilities to find their way into mainstream culture. Morrison, former editor of Disability Arts in London magazine, is freelance writer, theatre director, and author of the Independent Theatre Council's book on Theatre Practice and Disability. Finkelstein, a psychologist by training, was tutor in Disability Studies at the Open University, now Visiting Senior Research Fellow in the Centre for Disability Studies, Leeds University. Both authors have a disability. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs3/finkelstein93a.html
2003. Building an Independent Living organisation fit for the twenty first century. Underpinning organisational development with empowering principals.
Dr. Jane Campbell, Chair of the Social Care Institute for Excellence in England, contemplates the future of Independent Living organisations, including work together with non-disabled persons (which she calls, "the mutuality route.") She concludes, "our independent living organisations to be fit for the 21st century we must have principles of: full inclusion, valuing diversity, equality of opportunity, human rights, civil rights, and citizenship. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs6/campbell20030523.html
Disability Net 2000
2000. Buses for All (Europe) - A Brief Presentation.
A briefing outlining the Australian government’s plans to improve transportation accessibility for disabled people. Other briefings from the year 2000 detail the progress and problems of the EU Bus and Coach Directive and a campaign by the action group, Buses for All (Europe), to make buses accessible for all people with disabilities. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs1/buses3.htm
International Labour Organisation
1983. C159 Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment (Disabled Persons) Convention, 1983.
In 1983 The General Conference of the International Labour Organisation adopted the Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment (Disabled Persons) Convention in Geneva. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs4/ilo-conv-c159.html
1999. A Call for "Visitability.
Despite improvements in disability access, homes still routinely exclude people with disabilities. Eleanor Smith suggests a different approach to construction and modification. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs4/smith.html
1987. Canadian Action on Handicapping Environments.
Canada has made considerable progress in developing barrier-free environments, and human rights legislation now contains anti-discriminatory clauses which protect disabled persons, thereby providing opportunities for equal access to shelter, employment, goods and services. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/cib/cibprague5.html
Dr. Adolf Ratzka
1991. The case for accessibility legislation in a market economy." .
Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/cib/cibbudapest28.html
Doty, Pamela J
1998. The Cash and Counseling Demonstration: An Experiment in Consumer-Directed Personal Assistance Services.
The "Cash and Counseling" Demonstration/Evaluation is a large-scale public policy experiment designed to test the feasibility and assess a consumer-directed approach to the financing and delivery of personal assistance services (PAS). Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs4/ar398.html
Brown, Steven E
1995. A Celebration of Diversity: An Introductory, Annotated Bibliography about Disability Culture.
According to Dr. Steven E. Brown, Co-Founder of the Institute on Disability Culture, in the United States, the idea of disability culture has gained momentum in the early 1990s leading to many examples of the culture in articles, books, music, and film. This is an annotated description of those Brown believes are most significant. In: Disability Studies Quarterly 15 (4), (Fall 1995), 36-55. (PDF, 125 KB.) Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs3/brown95a.html and www.independentliving.org/docs3/brown95a.pdf
Racino, Julie Ann
1991. Center for Independent Living (CIL): Disabled People Take the Lead for Full Community Lives.
The Berkeley CIL, the "first organization of its type in the world," is a visible symbol of the Independent Living movement, the international civil rights movement of disabled people. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs4/racino91.html
Racino, Julie Ann
1991. Centrum för Independent Living (CIL), Berkeley, California: Funktionshindrade visar vägen till fullvärdigt medborgarskap.
The Berkeley CIL, the "first organization of its type in the world," is a visible symbol of the Independent Living movement, the international civil rights movement of disabled people. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs4/racino91sv.html (In Swedish.)
1988. The challenge of middle age for the Independent Living Movement.
Early in the movement, persons with physical disabilities wanted to be viewed as competent, self-directed, and capable of managing their own lives. Persons whose capacity for self-direction had been compromised threatened that image of competence. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/toolsforpower/tools3c.html
1998. Changing Lanes... A guide to help when aging, illness or disability forces us into the Slow Lane - Book Review.
Michael Creurer offers valuable psycho-educational concepts combined with narratives about the author and his disabled peers. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs4/rogers.html
1984. The changing role of the People First advisor.
People First is a self-advocacy organization operated by and for people with mental (intellectual) handicaps, with help from non-voting, non-disabled advisors. People First philosophy envisages a time when local chapters can function without full-time advisors, using only temporary help as needed. Curtis describes qualities of "good" advisors who are able to give leadership without taking control and problems which may arise with advisors from agency/institution staffs, who often hold traditional views and may be overprotective. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/toolsforpower/tools29.html
Dr. Adolf Ratzka
2003. Checklist for Organizing Independent Living Events.
In this checklist the author covers the steps of planning, event format, event contents and media work which are crucial to the success of a workshop, training session, seminar or conference on Independent Living. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs6/ratzka200308a.html
2006. Children with spina bifida and hydrocephalus in Africa: can medical, family and community resources improve the life chances?
This much extended and revised article incorporates material from: M. Miles (2002) Children with hydrocephalus and spina bifida in East Africa: can family and community resources improve the odds? Disability & Society 17: 643-658, Carfax Publishing, Taylor & Francis. (The latter material is republished with permission.) The revised article concerns social responses to children with hydrocephalus and spina bifida in African countries, and the historical development of ways in which various resources have been used to improve their life chances, and overcome the disabling effects of these conditions. Internet publication URLs: www.independentliving.org/docs7/miles200609.html and www.independentliving.org/docs7/miles200609.pdf (239 KB). miles200609.pdf (238.41 KB)
2010. THE CHUAS OF SHAH DAULAH AT GUJRAT, PAKISTAN: Evidence, Historical Background and Development, with Bibliography 1839-2009.
[This article cites and quotes historical materials first collected in: M. Miles (1996) Pakistan's microcephalic chuas of Shah Daulah: cursed, clamped or cherished? History of Psychiatry 7: 571-589, from Taylor & Francis, www.tandf.co.uk/]
Evidence on microcephalic children (chuas) at the shrine, and how some of them developed a capacity for independent living.
Internet publication URL: http://www.independentliving.org/miles201005.html
1987. Civil Rights FOR Disabled Americans: The Foundation of a Political Agenda.
The primary goal of this paper by Harlan Hahn of the University of Southern California is to examine crucial areas of agreement and disagreement about the "minority group model" (views prejudice and discrimination as the major issues confronting citizens with disabilities) both within and between disabled and nondisabled segments of the population, and to develop a case for the benefits that can be derived from policies founded on a socio-political understanding of disability. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs4/hahn.html