Personal Assistance in Sweden

Personal assistance in Sweden is the subject to constant reform and adjustment

Personal Assistance - a revolution for people with disabilities - Keynote

Westerberg, Bengt.  2013.  Personal Assistance - a revolution for people with disabilities - Keynote.
of the Liberal Party (Folkpartiet), describes the Swedish Act concerning Support and Service for Persons with Certain Functional Impairments (LSS), puts it in context with other Swedish legislation, and reflects on its societal costs and benefits. The reform utilizes direct payments for freedom of choice, self-determination and personal responsibility and, in this way, differs from traditional Swedish welfare politics where state agencies typically combine the functions of needs assessment, financing, quality control and service provision. Mr Westerberg, who credits the Swedish Independent Living movement for introducing the concept of direct payments for personal assistance to Sweden, succeeded in getting the legislation approved by Parliament during the country's deep economic crisis at the beginning of the 1990's. In Sweden, his personal pride in the legislation he authored is well-known.

Independent Living-rörelsen banade vägen

Dr. Adolf Ratzka.  2012.  Independent Living-rörelsen banade vägen.
Kapitel 2 ur boken: Perspektiv på personlig assistans, Brusén Peter, Flyckt Karin (red.), Gothia Förlag 2012 Adolf Ratzka Välviljans förtryck Socialpolitiken styrs vanligtvis inte av dem vars liv den påverkar, utan av politiker och tjänstemän utifrån politiska hänsynstaganden och en nödvändigtvis begränsad kännedom om andra människors livsvillkor. Det gäller framför allt oss personer med omfattande funktionsnedsättningar som för vår överlevnad är beroende av andra människors praktiska insatser i det dagliga livet, exempelvis med uppstigning, påklädning, toalettbesök, duschning. Ju större vårt beroende är, desto självklarare tar sig omgivningen rätten att ha åsikter om vad vi behöver och desto mindre har vi som berörs att säga till om när det gäller hur vi vill leva våra liv och vilka samhällsinsatser vi behöver. Som resultat ser vi ofta lösningar och tjänster som Resultaten av lösningarna gör oss mer beroende av andra istället för oberoende.

Benefit fraud in relation to personal assistance in Sweden

Tillander, Erik.  2012.  Benefit fraud in relation to personal assistance in Sweden.

Summary of legal cases, statistics and media coverage as of November 2012

In early 2010, Halmstad District Court handed down three judgments and several people were sentenced to prison for benefit fraud. These cases involved people pretending to be disabled, as well as other types of crimes, such as tax evasion and fraudulent timesheets that also figured in the subsequent discussion. In 2011 about 20 assistance companies were investigated, and two more people were convicted in February 2012.

Working and parenting with personal assistance

Tillander, Erik.  2012.  Working and parenting with personal assistance.

Summary of legislation, interpretations and other developments as of August 2012

In sweden there is a law that defines the rights people with severe functional impairments have to various fully funded services and benefits, including personal assistance. The law also defines requirements for a  functional impairments to be considered severe. This Law is called "The Law about Support and Service for Persons with Certain Functional Impairments (LSS)" and is the subject of regular review. If you are too old or not sufficiently impaired to qualify for LSS services then you may only be entitled to partially funded services according to another law.

The Independent Living movement paved the way: Origins of personal assistance in Sweden

Dr. Adolf Ratzka.  2012.  The Independent Living movement paved the way: Origins of personal assistance in Sweden. Perspectives on personal assistance.
Chapter 2 Perspectives on personal assistance, Brusén Peter, Flyckt Karin (ed.), Gothia Förlag 2012 Adolf Ratzka Benign oppression Social policy is rarely made by the people whose lives it affects. Rather, it is formulated based on political considerations by politicians and bureaucrats who, by necessity, have limited knowledge of the conditions of other people’s lives – especially regarding those of us with extensive disabilities who depend on other people to survive and require practical assistance with activities of daily living such as getting out of bed, dressing, personal hygiene and bathing. The greater our dependence, the more others assume they are entitled to have opinions about our needs and the less those of us affected have a say in how we want to live our lives and what social resources we need. As a result, solutions and services often make us more dependent on others rather than independent.

Personal Assistance in Sweden

Westberg, Kenneth, Berg Susanne, Dr. Adolf Ratzka.  2012.  Personal Assistance in Sweden.

The Independent Living Institute (ILI, Sweden) Sweden has written this report on Personal Assistance in Sweden for the Expertise Centre Independent Living, Flanders, Belgium.We gave ILI a list containing questions and topics on hot issues in Flanders. What is the legal framework? How does the assessment take place? What is the assistant's statute? What are the experiences with private enterprises? In this report, Kenneth Westberg answers these questions. He has written this report under the guidance of PhD. Adolf Ratzka.PDF

Municipalities as personal assistance providers in Sweden

Erdtman, Emil.  2010.  Municipalities as personal assistance providers in Sweden.

Summary of legislation, court interpretations and reports as of October 2010

Individuals granted personal assistance under the Act concerning Support and Service for Persons with Certain Functional Impairments (LSS) may choose whether their local municipality, a private company or cooperative will provide the assistance.

The role of relative helpers in the Swedish personal assistance system

Jaillet, C.  2009.  The role of relative helpers in the Swedish personal assistance system.
In most European countries the most common assistance for people with disabilities is provided by relatives, we can easily understand that this system has weaknesses. The trustful relationship makes it work but : -family members, especially parents, are getting old and can't help eternally their child or relative with disabilities -children that help a parent with disability have to handle with too much important responsibilities and too young -relationship partners can't sacrifice their career for the other and can't fear to sign for a life-long 24hour job -assistance with filial feelings most of the time leads to unequal relation -hiring external assistants is considered as an abandonment if relatives worked before as assistants

25 years of Independent Living in Sweden- Documentation - Susanne Berg on STIL


Panel discussion: Models, milestones and achievements by the Swedish Independent Living organisations, Susanne Berg, November 8 2008.

STIL is the oldest Independent Living organization in Sweden. The organization started the Swedish movement and therefore has worked the longest with the Independent Living model.
At the conference in 1983 the Independent Living movement was presented by Ed Roberts and Judy Heumann among others. It was presented as a movement with two sides, two legs.


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