Library

Found 715 results
1975
Finkelstein, Vic.  1975.  Att förneka eller acceptera funktionshinder.
Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs1/finkelsteinsv.html (In Swedish.)
United Nations General Assembly.  1975.  Declaration on the Rights of Disabled Persons Proclaimed by United Nations General Assembly resolution 3447 (XXX) of 9 December 1975.
Proclaimed by United Nations General Assembly resolution 3447 (XXX) of 9 December 1975. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs6/unga19751209.html
Zukas, H.  1975.  The History of the Berkeley Center for Independent Living (CIL).
CIL's roots can be traced to 1962 and the Cowell Residence Program at University of California, Berkeley where Ed Roberts struggled with bureaucrats. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs3/zukas.html
Finkelstein, Vic.  1975.  To Deny or Not to Deny Disability - What is disability?
Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs1/finkelstein.html
1979
Zola, I K.  1979.  Helping One Another: A Speculative History of the Self-Help Movement.
Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs4/zola1979.html
Berrol, Sheldon.  1979.  "The Role of the Able-Bodied Professional.".
Sheldon Berrol notes that the success of the independent living movement, in contrast to a rehabilitation or medical approach to disability, is due to the creation and nurturing of the movement by the disabled community. The role of the able bodied professional working with disabled people is to provide services, be active advocates, share skills, and provide training while allowing the direction of the Independent Living Program to come from within the disabled community. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs1/berrol.html.
1980
Derksen, Jim.  1980.  The Disabled Consumer Movement: Policy Implications for Rehabilitation Service Provisions.
Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs6/derksen1980.html
Frieden, Lex.  1980.  Independent Living Models.
In: Rehabilitation Literature, Special Article, July-August, 1980, Vol 41, No. 7-8, pp. 169-173. A-289. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs6/frieden1980.html
Curtis, Bruce.  1980.  The need for Independent Living programs: an historical context and summary of progressive independent living services.
In this early article, Bruce Curtis, of the Technical Assistance Project, Center for Independent Living in Berkeley, California, traces the history of forced dependency and institutionalization which has and often continues to be the lot of disabled persons. Basic denial of disabled people’s human and civil rights led to the 1972 establishment of the Center for Independent Living in 1972 in Berkeley – a rights advocacy and service organization developed by and for disabled people. Curtis outlines the various components of the center’s activities. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs1/curtisbneed.html
Galvin, Donald E.  1980.  Policy Issues in Independent Living Rehabilitation.
Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs6/galvin198006.html
1982
Miles, M.  1982.  Anledningen till varför Asien avvisar råd gällande funktionsnedsättning från väst.
Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/miles1982asien_avvisar
Dr. Adolf Ratzka.  1982.  Hemservice - i vems regi?
Artikeln som lanserade begreppen "personlig assistent", "personlig assistans i brukarregi" och föreslog finansiering av personlig assistans genom riksförsäkringsverket. Artikeln publicerades redan redan år 1982 i Svensk Handikapptidskrift. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs3/ar1982.html (In Swedish.)
United Nations.  1982.  United Nations Decade of Disabled Persons 1983-1992, World Programme of Action Concerning Disabled Persons.
This UN report concerns the Implementation of the World Programme of Action concerning Disabled Persons, including the implementation of the Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs4/WPACDP.html
Miles, M.  1982.  Why Asia Rejects Western Disability Advice.
This paper reviews psycho-social and religious factors, professional motivations and political inequalities, that have prevented any widespread adoption of "community-based rehabilitation" by Asian governments. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/miles_m1982why_asia_rejects_western_disability_advice
1983
International Labour Organisation.  1983.  C159 Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment (Disabled Persons) Convention, 1983.
In 1983 The General Conference of the International Labour Organisation adopted the Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment (Disabled Persons) Convention in Geneva. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs4/ilo-conv-c159.html
International Labour Organisation.  1983.  R168 Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment (Disabled Persons) Recommendation, 1983.
This document is a Recommendation adopted by The General Conference of the International Labour Organisation in Geneva in 1983 and supplements the C159 Convention. The document seeks to set forth new international standards concerning the need to ensure equality of opportunity and treatment to all categories of disabled persons, in both rural and urban areas, for employment and integration into the community. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs4/ilo-conv-r168.html
1984
Curtis, Charles.  1984.  The changing role of the People First advisor.
People First is a self-advocacy organization operated by and for people with mental (intellectual) handicaps, with help from non-voting, non-disabled advisors. People First philosophy envisages a time when local chapters can function without full-time advisors, using only temporary help as needed. Curtis describes qualities of "good" advisors who are able to give leadership without taking control and problems which may arise with advisors from agency/institution staffs, who often hold traditional views and may be overprotective. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/toolsforpower/tools29.html
Dr. Adolf Ratzka.  1984.  Costs and Benefits of Accessible Environments: A Case Study.
Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/cib/cibsthlm4.html
Heumann, Judith E.  1984.  Independent Living Movement: organizing for an active, disabled old age.
Judith E. Heumann explains what the Independent Living Movement is and what Independent Living Centres and how large numbers of other elderly disabled people could benefit greatly from services delivered by Independent Living centers. The World Institute on Disability's objectives in this regard are to work with appropriate organizations to raise awareness about aging and disability and to recommend policies which support elderly persons with disabilities. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/toolsforpower/tools28.html
CIB (International Council for Building Research).  1984.  Report of the International Expert Seminar Building Concept for the Handicapped Stockholm, Sweden, April 10-12, 1984.
CIB is the abbreviation of the French title of the International council for Building Research, Studies and Documentation. This portion of the report of the International Expert Seminar on Building Concept for the Handicapped in Stockholm in 1984 includes: a table of contents with links to individual presentations; and presentations by Mr. Bengt Lindqvist, Member of the Swedish Parliament, Chairman of the Central Committee of Organizations of the Disabled in Sweden, and by Professor Sven Thiberg, coordinating chairman of CIB/W 84 (the working commission). Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/cib/cibsthlm1.html
Thiberg, Sven.  1984.  Research Profiles and Strategies.
Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/cib/cibsthlm5.html  
Weiss-Lindencrona, Hanne.  1984.  Steering Systems and Their Application.
Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/cib/cibsthlm3.html
1985
Hahn, Harlan.  1985.  Toward a Politics of Disability: Definitions, Disciplines, and Policies.
The purpose of this study is to examine the values contained in three major definitions of disability, to examine the policy implications of each of these definitions, and to appraise the extent to which research in various disciplines of the social sciences has facilitated or impeded the development of a new conceptualization of the issue. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs4/hahn2.html
1986
Ervin, Michael.  1986.  The 25 Day Siege That Brought Us 504.
On April 5, 1977, thousands of disabled people in cities all over America converged on their regional offices of the Department of Health, Education and Welfare. They wanted implementation of regulations that would add significant impact to Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. Michael Ervin presents the reflections of three people who were involved in the actions the author deems to be the most significant event in the history of the disability rights movement. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs4/ervin1986.html
Dr. Adolf Ratzka.  1986.  Den lilla skillnaden - Apropå vår omslagsbild.
Från "Stiletten" nr. 4/86, oktober 1986. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs3/ar198610.html (In Swedish.)
Dr. Adolf Ratzka, Elmén Bengt.  1986.  Från redaktionen -"Stiletten" nr. 5/86, november 1986.
Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs3/ar198611.html (In Swedish.)
Dr. Adolf Ratzka.  1986.  Har samhället råd med oss?
Från "Stiletten" nr. 6/86, december 1986. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs3/ar198612.html (In Swedish.)
Driedger, Diane, D'Aubin April.  1986.  So you want to start an Independent Living centre? A Winnipeg case study
Diane Driedger and April D'Aubin, residents of Winnipeg, and involved with the Winnipeg Independent Living Resource Centre, present a history of Independent Living, Canadian initiatives, and step by step instructions on how to form an Independent Living Centre using the Winnipeg Independent Living Resource Centre as a case study. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs5/driedger-wpg1.html
1987
Elmén, Bengt.  1987.  15 års erfarenhet med personlig assistans och några erfarenheter med peer counselling. Stiletten, nr. 2, 1987.
Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs3/elmen87.html (In Swedish.)
Stiletten.  1987.  Är självbestämmande privatisering? Svar till Aftonbladet
Från Stiletten, Nr. 3 1987. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs3/stilettn387.html (In Swedish.)  
Champagne, Jean-Remi.  1987.  Canadian Action on Handicapping Environments.
Canada has made considerable progress in developing barrier-free environments, and human rights legislation now contains anti-discriminatory clauses which protect disabled persons, thereby providing opportunities for equal access to shelter, employment, goods and services. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/cib/cibprague5.html
Hahn, Harlan.  1987.  Civil Rights FOR Disabled Americans: The Foundation of a Political Agenda.
The primary goal of this paper by Harlan Hahn of the University of Southern California is to examine crucial areas of agreement and disagreement about the "minority group model" (views prejudice and discrimination as the major issues confronting citizens with disabilities) both within and between disabled and nondisabled segments of the population, and to develop a case for the benefits that can be derived from policies founded on a socio-political understanding of disability. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs4/hahn.html
Finkelstein, Vic.  1987.  Disabled People and our Culture Development.
Why is disability culture a crucial component of the disability rights movement? The question is addressed by Finkelstein, a psychologist by training, tutor in Disability Studies at the Open University and Visiting Senior Research Fellow in the Centre for Disability Studies, Leeds University. Finkelstein has a disability. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs3/finkelstein87a.html
CIB (International Council for Building Research).  1987.  Report of the Second International Expert Seminar on Building Non-Handicapping Environments: Renewal of Inner Cities, Prague.
This portion of the report of the Second International Expert Seminar on Building Non-Handicapping Environments: Renewal of Inner Cities held in Prague in 1987, includes: a table of contents with links to individual presentations; an introduction of the history and future directions of CIB W84 (the working commission) by Sven Thiberg the seminar Coordinator and Adolf D. Ratzka, the Associate Coordinator; a note on language used; the opening address by Dr. Rudolf Hegenbart; and an introduction to the themes of the seminar by Adolf D. Ratzka. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/cib/cibprague1.html
Miles, M.  1987.  Vocational Rehabilitation: Barefoot Realities in North West Pakistan.
A project was developed at Peshawar, Pakistan, for learning the components and processes of making cheap, basic items of everyday life and offering these to disabled young people as small-scale crafts to practise at home and to sell locally. The crafts are economically marginal, with earnings insufficient for self-support, yet they can make a financial contribution to the family budget. This changes the disabled person's role and can lift self-esteem and initiate improved attitudes, while remaining within local capacities and ecology. An earlier version of this paper appeared in the African Rehabilitation Journal (1987) Vol. 2 (10) 13-14. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs3/milesm1987a.html
1988
Dr. Adolf Ratzka.  1988.  Aufstand der Betreuten - Selbstrespekt als Richtschnur.
Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs4/ratzka88a.html (in German.)
Miles, M.  1988.  The Blind Afghan Child.
A young Afghan who was born blind in a remote village tells of his childhood and how he gained the skills to take part in community life and later to earn his living in a town. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs3/milesm1988a.html
Shields, Craig V.  1988.  A brief history of brokerage.
Service brokerage has a commitment to a set of values emphasizing the worth and dignity of individuals with disabilites and their right to live in the community. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/toolsforpower/tools27.html
DeJong, Gerben.  1988.  The challenge of middle age for the Independent Living Movement.
Early in the movement, persons with physical disabilities wanted to be viewed as competent, self-directed, and capable of managing their own lives. Persons whose capacity for self-direction had been compromised threatened that image of competence. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/toolsforpower/tools3c.html
Pfeiffer, David.  1988.  Divisions in the disability community.
Within the community of disabled persons in this country there is a division between those concerned with civil rights and those concerned with service delivery. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/toolsforpower/tools3b.html
Shields, Craig V.  1988.  Mäkleri - en kort historik.
Service brokerage has a commitment to a set of values emphasizing the worth and dignity of individuals with disabilites and their right to live in the community. Internet publikation URL: www.independentliving.org/toolsforpower/tools27sv.html (In Swedish.)
CIB (International Council for Building Research).  1988.  Report of the Third International Expert Seminar on Building Non-Handicapping Environments: Accessibility Issues in Developing Countries, Tokyo.
This portion of the report of the Third International Expert Seminar on Building Non-Handicapping Environments: Accessibility Issues in Developing Countries held in Tokyo in 1988, includes: a table of contents with links to individual presentations; a preface by the editor of the report, Adolf D. Ratzka, Ph.D., outlining the concepts of accessibility and Independent Living; a presentation of the organizers of the seminar; and opening statements by Dr. Yasumi Yoshitake, Chairman of the Executive Committee, Architectural Institute of Japan, by Professor Sven Thiberg, the CIB W84 Coordinator, and by Dr. Mickey Milner, Immediate Past Chairman of ICTA, International Commission on Technical Aids, Building and Transportation. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/cib/cibtokyo1.html
Oka, Yukiko.  1988.  Self-reliance in interdependent communities: Independent living of disabled persons in the Asia-Pacific region.
Yukiko Oka analyses the results of an ESCAP questionnaire which covers institutionalization, community-based rehabilitation, and the rights of people with disabilities. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs4/oka.html
Bracking, Stuart, Cowan Ross.  1988.  Using a home care agency - A question and answer guide for Disabled people.
An introduction to personal assistance for people with disabilities, including definitions and dozens of practical questions with straight-forward answers. Internet publication URLs: www.independentliving.org/docs4/bracking98.html and www.independentliving.org/docs4/bracking98.pdf.
1989
GAD's Center for Independent Living.  1989.  Employing your own personal assistant - Tools for Power.
Dr. Adolf Ratzka.  1989.  Personal Assistance: The key to Independent Living.
Keynote address at the conference on personal assistance in Strasbourg, France.
Ahuja, Suresh C.  1989.  Role of Disabled Persons & Families in the Equalization of Opportunites.
Disabled persons can be converted from tax consumers to tax payers, from beneficiaries to benefactors, given the opportunity for self-development and provided with equal opportunities for education, vocational training and employment. Presented at the International Meeting on Human Resources in the Field of Disability, Tallin, 14-22 August 1989. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs4/ahuja.html.
duToit, Mike.  1989.  Self Help Association of Paraplegics, SHAP, Republic of South Africa.
This article describes the experience and success of SHAP, which was launched in 1981 by a group of unemployed Soweto paraplegics. They decided to operate a factory employing only disabled people, doing work on a subcontract basis for industry. By 1989 the factory employed 130 disabled people. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/toolsforpower/tools31.html
European Network on Independent Living(ENIL).  1989.  The Strasbourg Resolutions.
Finkelstein, Vic.  1989.  You Don't Have to be a Cripple if You're Disabled, The upside-down world of racist South Africa.
Vic Finkelstein reports on his harrowing experience with South African police, not because he is black, but because he is disabled. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs1/finkelstein2.html
1990
United States of America.  1990.  Americans With Disabilities Act PUBLIC LAW 101-336 JULY 26, 1990 104 STAT. 327.
The ADA gives civil rights protections to individuals with disabilities that are like those provided to individuals on the basis of race, sex, national origin, and religion. Internet publication URLs: www.independentliving.org/docs3/ada.html, and www.independentliving.org/docs3/adapamph.html
Dunn, Peter A.  1990.  The Economic, Social, and Environmental Obstacles Which Seniors with disabilities confront in Canada.
This paper describes and analyzes the economic, environmental and attitudinal factors that create barriers which confront disabled seniors in Canada, especially those individuals with physical disabilities, and which limit their full participation in society. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs5/dunn1990a.html
Dr. Adolf Ratzka.  1990.  Gustav Möller (s) och STIL.
STIL-modellen - maximalt självbestämmande men offentlig finansiering - knyter an till gammal socialdemokratisk tradition. Gustav Möller var svensk socialminister på 40-talet och förordnade den s k kontantlinjen. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs3/ar1990a.html (In Swedish.)
Werner, David.  1990.  Resa till Angola - ett land där människor lemlästas som en strategi i lågintensiv krigföring.
Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/werner1990rese_till_angola
Dr. Adolf Ratzka.  1990.  STIL mot hemtjänststalinisterna.
Hur skulle det se ut om kommunen hade monopol på finansieringen, produktionen och fördelningen av bröd? Artikeln illustrerar det tredubbla kommunala monopolet på hemtjänstområde. Artikeln publicerades i DN. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs3/ar199008.html (In Swedish.)
Dube, A K.  1990.  Vad menar vi med utveckling?
Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/dube1990utveckling
Werner, David.  1990.  Visit to Angola: Where Civilians are Disabled as a Strategy of LIC.
Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/werner1990visit_to_angola
Dube, A K.  1990.  What Do We Mean by Development?
A.K. Dube of the Southern Africa Federation of the Disabled (SAFOD) Regional Development Officer discusses features of the development-underdevelopment process as it relates to disabled people and their organizations. He notes that people can only liberate or develop themselves if they are able to identify the forces that constrain or oppress them. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/dube1990development
1991
Philippen, D P.  1991.  Access legislation.
Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/cib/cibbudapest25.html
Maxa, Miloslav.  1991.  Access legislation in the Czech Republic.
Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/cib/cibbudapest16.html  
Fern, Robert.  1991.  Access to services and facilities in the Canadian Parks Service.
Robert Fern of The Canadian Parks Service (CPS) in his presentation at the CIB Seminar in Budapest, 1991, describes the Canadian Parks Service's implementation of accessibility measures for disabled persons in the Canadian National Parks. The CPS Strategy and Action Plan emphasizes the need for persons who have hearing, visual and mobility impairments to have equal and, where possible, integrated access to park and site themes, recreational opportunities and essential services. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/cib/cibbudapest8.html
Christophersen, Jon.  1991.  Accessibility legislation - 1991.
Jon Christophersen, of the Building Research Institute in Norway, describes accessibility legislation, implementation, incentives for implementation and problems encountered in Norway. Two studies were carried out, one concerning access legislation in the building regulations and the other concerning life-span dwelling criteria. The results showed that accessibility in Norway could be improved through better workmanship and better control on site, improved legislation, and changing building practice. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/cib/cibbudapest4.html
Novikov, Yuri.  1991.  Accessibility legislation in Byelorussia and the Byelorussian Society of the Disabled.
Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/cib/cibbudapest21.html  
Dunn, Peter A.  1991.  Accessible housing legislation and policies: A framework for future policy development.
This paper focuses on the range of policy and legislative issues which need to be tackled in order for countries to promote a barrier-free housing environment, while looking at housing rights and civil rights of people with disabilities. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/cib/cibbudapest6.htm
Kurylowicz, Ewa.  1991.  Adaptation of a theatre in Krakow, Poland.
In May 1991, the 19th century Slowackiego Theatre in Krakow, Poland was scheduled to host the International Conference on Security and Cooperation. This paper discusses adaptations made to parts of the building so that the needs and interests of people with disabilities could better be served. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/cib/cibbudapest15.html
Golden, Marilyn.  1991.  The Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990: An activist's perspective.
In her presentation, Marilyn Golden of the Disability Rights and Education Defense Fund, U.S.A., talks about the series of laws against discrimination that the disability movement in the US has achieved, their limitations, and how they are enforced. An account is given of the extensive grass-roots activities and coalition building which took place prior to the enactment of the ADA of 1990. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/cib/cibbudapest11.html
Nee, Pauline.  1991.  Anti-discrimination legislation as a basis for barrier-free design: How could the Americans with Disabilities Act be adapted for the U.K.?
Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/cib/cibbudapest20.html  
Eilenberg, Ian M.  1991.  Australia takes tentative steps to take up the challenge of persons with disabilities.
This report by Ian M. Eilenberg, Victorian University of Technology, RMIT, Australia describes legislative steps taken in Australia to improve building regulations in order to promote accessibility and a "non-handicapping" environment. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/cib/cibbudapest7.html
Maxa, Miloslav.  1991.  Barriers in the built environment: The problems of barrier removal in the Czech Republic.
Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/cib/cibbudapest17.html  
Stepanov, Viatcheslav K.  1991.  Built environment for disabled persons in Russia: Needs and problems.
Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/cib/cibbudapest29.html  
Dr. Adolf Ratzka.  1991.  The case for accessibility legislation in a market economy." .
Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/cib/cibbudapest28.html
Racino, Julie Ann.  1991.  Center for Independent Living (CIL): Disabled People Take the Lead for Full Community Lives.
The Berkeley CIL, the "first organization of its type in the world," is a visible symbol of the Independent Living movement, the international civil rights movement of disabled people. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs4/racino91.html
Racino, Julie Ann.  1991.  Centrum för Independent Living (CIL), Berkeley, California: Funktionshindrade visar vägen till fullvärdigt medborgarskap.
The Berkeley CIL, the "first organization of its type in the world," is a visible symbol of the Independent Living movement, the international civil rights movement of disabled people. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs4/racino91sv.html (In Swedish.)
Csorba, Zoltán.  1991.  Classification of the environment - 1991.
In his report at the CIB seminar in 1991, Zoltán Csorba from the Mayor's Office in Budapest, Hungary describes action taken by the government to build homes for persons with disabilities in conjunction with the International Year of Disabled Persons and the various reasons why this initiative did not continue. He outlines a system of classification of the environment which could be used in the formulation of international recommendations which could in turn serve as a basis for legislation to promote the creation of non-handicapping environments and homes in former socialist states. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/cib/cibbudapest5.html
Miles-Paul, Ottmar, Frehse Uwe.  1991.  Creating a political alliance for anti-discrimination legislation in Germany.
Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/cib/cibbudapest18.html  
Parakattel, Paul.  1991.  Creating accessibility in developing countries.
Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/cib/cibbudapest23.html  
Park, Walter.  1991.  Creating and maintaining access to housing: Implementing access at the local level.
Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/cib/cibbudapest24.html
Kose, Satoshi.  1991.  Design guidelines of public collective housing for the aging society in Japan.
Satoshi Kose, from the Building Design and Use Division, Building Research Institute in Tsukuba, Japan, describes the Ministry of Construction's project aimed at solving the problem of housing for the aged, in terms of both policy on housing supply and guidelines for dwelling design. Some of the practical requirements will be: elimination of level differences within dwellings; provision of handrails to assist moving about; promotion of the development of building facilities that are suited to the needs of the aged persons, etc. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/cib/cibbudapest13.html
Atanasova, Gallina.  1991.  Disability in Bulgaria - the necessity of higher social protection during the crisis period and the transition to a market economy.
Gallina Atanassova outlines the effects that half a century of totalitarian socialism has had on the current situation of disabled people in Bulgaria. She describes the work of the Union of Disabled People in Bulgaria, a grass roots organization which advocates for the rights and needs of disabled people in Bulgaria. Third ENIL Seminar, Stockholm, Sweden June 1991. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs2/enilstockholmsem2.html. In: Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs2/enilstockholmsem1.html.
Driedger, Diane(ed.).  1991.  Disabled People in International Development.
This booklet is presented to create an increasing awareness of disabled persons in the development process for both the disabled persons community and non-governmental organizations involved in international development. Internet publication URLs: www.independentliving.org/docs1/dispeopleintldev1.html and www.independentliving.org/docs1/dispeopleintldev.pdf
Driedger, Diane(ed.).  1991.  Disabled People's Development Projects.
This booklet is presented to create an increasing awareness of disabled persons in the development process for both the disabled persons community and non-governmental organizations involved in international development. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs1/dispeopleintldev3.html
Kose, Satoshi.  1991.  Elderly people and their accident experiences: Implication for the design of safer and easier-to-use dwellings.
In Japan, the 65-years-and-over age group has been rapidly increasing. Satoshi Kose, from the Building Design and Use Division, Building Research Institute in Tsukuba, Japan, discusses dwelling design for elderly people based on convenience and safety of residents. He bases his discussion on the results of two surveys conducted as a cooperative research by BRI, Asahi Chemical Co., Ltd. Housing Department, and Sekisui House Co., Tokyo Design Department. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/cib/cibbudapest14.html
Wolinsky, Sid.  1991.  From an American legal practitioner's viewpoint.
Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/cib/cibbudapest35.html
Treffers, Bastian.  1991.  Legislation: Strategy or final solution?
Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/cib/cibbudapest32.html
Driedger, Diane, D'Aubin April.  1991.  Literacy for Whom: Women with Disabilities Marginalized.
Disabled people, particularly disabled women, must be given specific consideration within the learner population. Literacy is both a gender issue and a disability issue. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/driedger_daubin1991literacy_for_whom
Driedger, Diane(ed.).  1991.  Människor med funktionsnedsättning och internationell utveckling.
Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs1/dispeopleintldev1sv.html (In Swedish.)
Fränti, Marttiina, Könkkölä Maija.  1991.  National report on Finnish access legislation.
Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/cib/cibbudapest9.html
Thorén, Clas.  1991.  The Nordic Committee on Disability: Existing legislation in the Nordic countries.
Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/cib/cibbudapest30.html  
van Hek, Roy.  1991.  Presentation of the "European Manual for an Accessible Built Environment.
Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/cib/cibbudapest34.html
Harrison, James D.  1991.  Recent advances in accessibility legislation and incentives in Singapore.
This paper, by James D. Harrison from the School of Architecture, National University of Singapore, Singapore, describes the situation for disabled persons in Singapore, and the background leading up to proposals on accessibility which called for the introduction of a mandatory Accessibility Code for all buildings (including existing ones). Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/cib/cibbudapest12.html
Polinszky, Tibor.  1991.  Regulation of the non-handicapping environment in Hungary.
Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/cib/cibbudapest26.html  
Ghaem, Gisoo.  1991.  Research on urban planning and architecture for disabled persons in Iran - Establishing design criteria.
Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/cib/cibbudapest10.html
Rajkov, Gordana.  1991.  The role of the Muscular Dystrophy Association in the creation of a barrier-free environment.
Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/cib/cibbudapest27.html  
Economic Social Commission for Asia the Pacific, United Nations.  1991.  Self-Help Organizations of Disabled Persons.
The preparation of this Internet publication, "Self-Help Organizations of Disabled Persons," is an activity of an Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) project, with the purpose of promoting and supporting the self-help movement of people with disabilities in Asia and the Pacific. Guidelines on establishing and strengthening self-help organizations of disabled persons as well as case studies of such organizations are presented. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs2/escap1991.html
Daneshpour, Zohereh A, Toumeh Arbel F M.  1991.  A socio-physical study towards building barrier-free urban environment in Iran.
The Iranian five year National Development plan (from 1989-1994) includes "renovation of the overall urban environments towards the needs of the disabled." This paper by Zohereh A. Daneshpour and Arbel Toumeh F.M., of the DBRE Research Center in Tehran, Iran, is part of a research study included in the plan and describes how a case study area in Tehran was selected and analyzed in terms of existing problem areas for disabled persons in the urban environment. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/cib/cibbudapest31.html
Uritsky, Felix M.  1991.  Technical aids and accessibility problems.
Presentation of a project emphasising assistive devices and legislation to create a barrier-free environment for people with disabilities and elderly people. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/cib/cibbudapest33.html
Örnhall, Hans.  1991.  Towards European guidelines for an accessible built environment: An analysis of the "European Manual" from the Nordic experience.
Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/cib/cibbudapest22.html
Armeni, Alain.  1991.  Towards general accessibility of the built environment for persons with limited mobility.
In: "Report of the Fourth International Expert Seminar on Building Non-Handicapping Environments: Access Legislation and Design Solutions Budapest, Hungary, September 2-4, 1991" (PDF, 480 KB). Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/cib/cibbudapest2.html. In Internet publication URLs: www.independentliving.org/cib/cibbudapest1.html and www.independentliving.org/cib/cibbudapest.pdf
Milner, Joanne, Urquhart Dennis, Cox David.  1991.  Universal design and designer awareness: The constraints of architectural education.
Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/cib/cibbudapest19.html  
Driedger, Diane(ed.).  1991.  Utvecklingsprojekt av och för personer med funktionsnedsättning.
Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs1/dispeopleintldev3sv.html

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