Ideology and Definitions

Towards an operational definition of Personal Assistance

Dr. Adolf Ratzka.  1992.  Towards an operational definition of Personal Assistance.

Persons with extensive disabilities need assistance by other people in their everyday lives with such activities as getting bathed and dressed or going to the toilet; with shopping, preparing meals, cleaning or doing the laundry; with such responsibilities within the family as doing the practical tasks involved in raising small children or assisting one' s aging parents. Assistants help the user at work, about town and on travel. They assist in communicating or in structuring the day, as the case might be. In brief, assistants help with those activities which the user would have done by himself or herself, had it not been for a physical, sensory, mental or intellectual disability.

Modelo para una Política Nacional de Asistencia Personal

Dr., Ratzka Adolf;.  2004.  Modelo para una Política Nacional de Asistencia Personal.
La política sugerida aquí es diferente, porque está escrita por individuos quienes en sí dependen de la asistencia diaria de otros. El Centro Europeo para la Excelencia en Asistencia Personal (ECEPA) ( está formado por ocho organizaciones asociadas 1, en ocho países europeos, que son operadas y controladas por personas con discapacidad y se especializa en brindar y defender los servicios de asistencia personal para personas con discapacidad. Usando nuestra experiencia combinada con las políticas de asistencia personal, se recopiló una lista de características para una política que promueve la autodeterminación y la ciudadanía completa para las personas con discapacidades extensivas.

What is Independent Living - A Personal Definition

Dr., Ratzka Adolf;.  2003.  What is Independent Living - A Personal Definition.
photo of bamboo Bamboo, symbol of
strength through resilience.

Independent Living is a philosophy and a movement of people with disabilities who work for self-determination, equal opportunities and self-respect.

Independent Living does not mean that we want to do everything by ourselves and do not need anybody or that we want to live in isolation.

Vad är Independent Living - en personlig definition

Dr., Ratzka Adolf;.  2003.  Vad är Independent Living - en personlig definition.
photo of bamboo Bamboo, symbol of
strength through resilience.

Independent Living är en filosofi och en internationell rörelse av människor med funktionshinder som arbetar för självbestämmande, lika villkor och självrespekt.

Independent Living betyder inte att vi vill göra allt själv, att vi inte behöver andra människor eller att vi vill leva isolerat.

The Craving of the Benevolent

Berg, Susanne.  2003.  The Craving of the Benevolent.

Susanne Berg and her catSusanne Berg has been actively involved in the Swedish disability movement since the mid-1980s. She lectures, writes and speaks on a range of subjects from disability history and awareness to accessibility to the physical environment. Susanne sees column writing as therapy, loves her cat and hates 1111descriptions like this.

 Listening to the angry argument between my Swiss friend and our table neighbour I try to look undisturbed; cool, calm and aloof. They are arguing about me, or rather the right to cut my sausages.

The Strasbourg Resolutions

European Network on Independent Living(ENIL).  1989.  The Strasbourg Resolutions.
In April 1989, the first European Independent Living Conference was held at the European Parliament in Strasbourg, France. The meeting's theme was Personal Assistant. The conference resulted in the founding of the European Network for Independent Living, ENIL. Here, the resolution adopted at the conference.


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