Government Action on Disability Policy
A Global Survey
Part II - Government Replies as Country Profiles
Download 'Government Reports on the UN Standard Rules' as a PDF file (440 KB)
© Dimitris Michailakis 1997
Transmitted by Permanent Mission to the United Nations, New York (30 April 1996)
Compare with the following Country Report(s): ILSMH
The officially recognized disability policy in the Russian Federation is expressed in law. The emphasis - in descending scale - is on: anti-discrimination law, rehabilitation, prevention, individual support and accessibility measures.
Since the adoption of the rules the Government has taken the following actions in order to convey the message of full participation: A state report on the status of persons with disabilities in the Russian Federation has been published, and thematic overviews of their status are in the course of preparation. Radio and television programmes dealing with the problems of disability are broadcast on a regular basis. Literature for persons with disabilities and of problems of disability are being published, including material in Braille. Gramophone records, tapes and other audio materials, films and videos are produced for persons with disabilities. The International Day of Disabled Persons is celebrated annually.
The legislation of the Russian Federation on the social protection of persons with disabilities consists of the Constitution of the Russian Federation, the Federal Law on the social protection of persons with disabilities and also the laws and other normative legislative instruments for subjects of the Russian Federation. The judicial mechanism adopted to protect the rights of persons with disabilities is due process (legal remedy through the courts). The non-judicial mechanism includes a Governmental body (administrative).
The general legislation applies to persons with different disabilities but with individual exceptions.
The following benefits are guaranteed by law to persons with disabilities: health and medical care, training, rehabilitation and counselling, financial security, employment, independent living, and participation in decisions affecting them.
The following laws concerning disability has been enacted since the adoption of the Rules.
- The decree of the President of the Russian Federation of 22 December 1993, No. 2254, on measures of state support for the activity of all-Russian associations of persons with disabilities.
- The Federal Law on social services for older citizens and citizens with disabilities of 2 August 1995, No. 122.
- The Federal Law on social protection for persons with disabilities in the Russian Federation of 24 November 1995, No. 181.
There are laws and regulations ensuring accessibility of the build environment, defined by the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation of 2 October 1992 on measures to create an accessible environment for persons with disabilities, and strengthened by article 15 of the Federal Law on social protection of persons with disabilities in the Russian Federation, into effect on 24 November 1995. Monitoring compliance with the accessibility requirements is the responsibility of the territorial organizations of the State Architectural and Construction Inspectorate of the Russian Federation. Each of the territories of the Russian Federation draws up its own specific programme for the creation of a living environment, accessible to persons with disabilities; the programme provides measures to vehicle parking spaces, installation of the necessary lifts, ensuring the accessibility of residential and public buildings and facilities, and other measures, including the provision of specially adapted automobiles. There are special transport arrangements for persons with disabilities. In many towns in the country persons with disabilities travel on the urban public transport free of charge. When planning to build accessible environments the most difficult obstacles are economic/budgetary factors, and for the northern part of the country geographical and climatic factors. There is a disability awareness component incorporated in the training of planners, architects and construction engineers.
Sign language for deaf people is recognized as the main means of communication between deaf persons and others. There are Government measures for encouraging media and other forms of public information to make their services accessible. The following services are provided in order to facilitate information and communication between persons with disabilities and others: literature in Braille/tape and sign language interpretation being available for any purpose.
Organizations of persons with disabilities
There is no national umbrella organization for the organizations of persons with disabilities. Legal provisions mandate the representatives of persons with disabilities to participate in policy-making and to work with Governmental institutions. Disability organizations are often consulted when laws and regulations with a disability aspect are being prepared. Consultations take place at the national, regional and local level. The Government gives financial support to existing or new organizations of persons with disabilities. Persons with disabilities participate to some extent in legislature, judicial authorities and in political parties. The disabled persons' organizations have the role to advocate rights and improved services, mobilize persons with disabilities, identify needs and priorities, participate in the planning, implementation and evaluation of services and measures, contribute to public awareness, provide services and promote/organize income generating activities.
Co-ordination of work
There is no national co-ordinating committee or any similar body.