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Nkeli, Jerry.  1998.  Human Rights Commissioner reflects on achievements obtained by people with disabilities.
In South Africa we have disabled people in leadership-roles and have achieved a lot but we have many problems to face in the field of human rights such as issues dealing with racial intolerance and a diversity of various issues that deal with colonialism. Seminar on Human Rights for Persons with Disabilities from a North and South Perspective, Seminar on Human Rights for Persons with Disabilities from a North and South Perspective, Stockholm, Sweden 23 August, 1998. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs1/stlm19980823f.html
Nolan, Ann, Regan Colm.  2003.  Direct Payments Schemes for People with Disabilities - A Summary Guide, A new and innovative policy approach to providing services to disabled people in Ireland.
This information leaflet is based on the research project, "Direct Payments Schemes for People with Disabilities," carried out by the Bray Partnership in 2002 (see above). The aim of the leaflet is to provide information and create awareness about the concept of direct payments, as well as to commence a lobbying process for the introduction of a direct payments pilot programme. As such, the leaflet fulfills part of the recommendations of the research project relating to dissemination of information and increasing awareness. Bray Partnership, Ireland, Website: www.braypartnership.ie. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs6/bray200305-sum.pdf (155 KB). See also the main document, Internet publication URL:www.independentliving.org/docs6/bray200305.pdf (357 KB)
Nordenfelt, Enar.  2010.  Stiftelsen Fonden till Rolf Bergfors minne. PDF icon 20100505_Information.pdf (177.91 KB)PDF icon 20081015_Ansokningsblankett.pdf (92.73 KB)
Nordenfelt, Enar.  2010.  The foundation in memory of Rolf Bergfors.
Novikov, Yuri.  1991.  Accessibility legislation in Byelorussia and the Byelorussian Society of the Disabled.
Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/cib/cibbudapest21.html  
Ntsika Enterprise Promotion Agency.  2000.  Innovative Disabled Entrepreneur Award Scheme (IDEAS) - Calling All Entrepreneurs With Disabilities.
Promoting entrepreneurship of persons with disabilities through competition and awards: an example from South Africa. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs5/Innovative-Disabled-Entrepreneur-Award-Scheme.html
Nybom, Martin, Pettersson Jens.  2008.  Personlig assistans - en billig och effektiv form av valfrihet, egenmakt och integritet - En jämförelse mellan kostnaderna för personlig assistans och kommunal hemtjänst.
Internet publication URL: http://www.independentliving.org/lsskostnad/ (In Swedish.)
Nyhetsbyrån ikapp.  2003.  Populärt byta färdtjänstbuss mot taxi.
Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/taxi/ikapp20030327.html (In Swedish).  
Nzioki, Nicky, Maganjo Agnes, Kariuki Catherine.  1992.  A review of current accessibility legislation in Kenya.
Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/cib/cibharare15.html
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O'brien, John, O'brien Connie Lyle.  2003.  Publications by John O'brien and Connie Lyle O'brien.
Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs6/obrien20031011.html  
Office on the Status of Disabled Persons, South Africa.  1997.  Integrated National Disability Strategy- White Paper.
White Paper from the Office of the President, South Africa. Disabled people should not be seen as objects of pity but as capable individuals who are contributing immensely to the development of society. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs5/SANatlDisStrat.html
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Oka, Yukiko.  1988.  Self-reliance in interdependent communities: Independent living of disabled persons in the Asia-Pacific region.
Yukiko Oka analyses the results of an ESCAP questionnaire which covers institutionalization, community-based rehabilitation, and the rights of people with disabilities. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs4/oka.html
Oldenkamp, I.  1995.  Tricycle Production Manual - Vehicle design for people with disabilites in developing countries.
The tricycle is designed primarily for disabled people in Asia, since the result is a joint effort between four Asian organizations. The Tricycle Production Manual has been developed for basically skilled and equipped workshops in developing countries. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs5/tricycle.html
Oliver, Mike.  1999.  Disabled people and the inclusive society: or the times they really are changing.
Mike Oliver looks at semantics and use of words in addressing disability issues, and refers to Bob Dylan's "The times they are a-changing" to make his point about exclusion and discrimination. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs4/oliver.html
Opitz, Caspar.  2003.  Delseger för dem som nyttjar rullstolstaxi.
Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/taxi/dn20030923.html (In Swedish.)
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Osterwitz, Ingolf.  1996.  Comunita Progetto Sud and Cooperativa at Lamezia Terme - Report from the study visit of working group one, sector social integration, 28 March - 31 March 1996.
Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs6/osterwitz1996.html
Osterwitz, Ingolf.  1994.  The Concept of Independent Living - a New Perspective in Rehabilitation.
Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs5/Osterwitz.html
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Parakattel, Paul.  1991.  Creating accessibility in developing countries.
Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/cib/cibbudapest23.html  
Park, Walter.  1991.  Creating and maintaining access to housing: Implementing access at the local level.
Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/cib/cibbudapest24.html
Paul Lappalainen, Erdtman, Emil.  2017.  CONFERENCE VIDEOS 24-25 NOV 2016: Strategic litigation and human rights enforcement.
Persson, Ann, Palmgren Nils.  2003.  Fel siffra orsakade rabalder i färdtjänstdebatt.
Dagens Nyheter. Internet publikation URL: www.independentliving.org/taxi/dn20031003.html (In Swedish.)  
Persson, Ann.  2003.  Protester mot höjd avgift för rullstolstaxi.
Dagens Nyhter. Internet publikation URL: www.independentliving.org/taxi/dn20031007.html (In Swedish).  
Peterson, Dick.  1998.  Hanging In There.
Dick Peterson creates a new hoisting device with an above-the-waist lifting harness, making transfers smoother for people with various physical disabilities. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs3/peterson.html
Pfeiffer, David.  1994.  Eugenics and Disability Discrimination.
David Pfeiffer presents and discusses the many statutory ways in which the civil rights of disabled people were, and still are, violated through state and local government laws in the United States. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs1/pfeiffe1.html
Pfeiffer, David.  1988.  Divisions in the disability community.
Within the community of disabled persons in this country there is a division between those concerned with civil rights and those concerned with service delivery. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/toolsforpower/tools3b.html
Pfeiffer, David.  1995.  The Disability Movement and its History.
Pfeiffer, resident scholar in the Center on Disability Studies at the University of Hawaii at Manoa, past president of the Society for Disability Studies, present editor of Disability Studies Quarterly and an early leader of the U.S. disability rights movement while a full time faculty member at Suffolk University in Boston, explores the history of the American disability rights movements through some of its most classic texts. First published as "Hip Crip 101." Mainstream: Magazine of the Able-Disabled, Dec.-Jan. 1994-95. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs3/pfeiffer95.html
Philippen, D P.  1991.  Access legislation.
Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/cib/cibbudapest25.html
Physical Disability Council of NSW, Inc..  1999.  Position Papers '99, Attendant Care.
Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs1/pdcnsw99.html  
Polinszky, Tibor.  1991.  Regulation of the non-handicapping environment in Hungary.
Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/cib/cibbudapest26.html  
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Racino, Julie Ann.  1991.  Centrum för Independent Living (CIL), Berkeley, California: Funktionshindrade visar vägen till fullvärdigt medborgarskap.
The Berkeley CIL, the "first organization of its type in the world," is a visible symbol of the Independent Living movement, the international civil rights movement of disabled people. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs4/racino91sv.html (In Swedish.)
Racino, Julie Ann.  1991.  Center for Independent Living (CIL): Disabled People Take the Lead for Full Community Lives.
The Berkeley CIL, the "first organization of its type in the world," is a visible symbol of the Independent Living movement, the international civil rights movement of disabled people. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs4/racino91.html
Rajah, Zorah.  1992.  Legislation of mobility facilities for disabled persons as backup to existing goodwill.
Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/cib/cibharare16.html  
Rajkov, Gordana.  2003.  Inependent Living and Yugoslav Experience.
The report presented on behalf Centre for Independent Living of Serbia, at the Europena Network on Independent Living (ENIL) Conference in Southampton, England, 7-9 March 2003. Gordana R. is a founding member of CIL in Serbia, and in the report she is explaining the current situation of disabled people in Serbia in the light of economic, social and political context, and CIL’s efforts to promote the idea of Independent Living Phylosophy in Serbia, particularly the PA Service, through pilot projects and research. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs6/rajkov200303.html
Rajkov, Gordana.  1999.  A Personal Letter from Belgrade, Serbia - Written during the current NATO bombings in Yugoslavia.
Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs6/rajkov1999.html  
Rajkov, Gordana.  1991.  The role of the Muscular Dystrophy Association in the creation of a barrier-free environment.
Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/cib/cibbudapest27.html  
Dr. Adolf Ratzka.  1990.  Gustav Möller (s) och STIL.
STIL-modellen - maximalt självbestämmande men offentlig finansiering - knyter an till gammal socialdemokratisk tradition. Gustav Möller var svensk socialminister på 40-talet och förordnade den s k kontantlinjen. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs3/ar1990a.html (In Swedish.)
Dr. Adolf Ratzka.  1993.  Vad kommer LSS innebära för STIL och andra initiativ?
I: Institutet för Independent Living. 1993. "Hemtjänst i omdaning - möjligheter och decentraliseringens och privatiseringens tid, Dokumentation av STIL-hearing Stockholm 1993." Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs3/stil1993.html#vad (In Swedish.)
Dr. Adolf Ratzka, Larsson Anna.  1993.  Peer Support - En sjöman ber inte om medvind - han lär sig segla.
Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs5/peersupport.html (In Swedish.)
Dr. Adolf Ratzka, Elmén Bengt.  1986.  Från redaktionen -"Stiletten" nr. 5/86, november 1986.
Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs3/ar198611.html (In Swedish.)
Dr. Adolf Ratzka.  2004.  Een model voor een nationale politiek inzake persoonlijke assistentie.".
Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs6/ratzka200410a-nl.html
Dr. Adolf Ratzka.  1995.  Supporting families in keeping disabled family members at home: Swedish policy instruments.
Dr. Adolf Ratzka.  1997.  Independent Living and Our Organizations.
Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/toolsforpower/tools7gr.html (In Greek).
Dr. Adolf Ratzka.  2003.  The prerequisites for de-institutionalization.
Paper presented at the European Congress on Independent Living, Tenerife April 24-26, 2003. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs6/ratzka200304.html.
Dr. Adolf Ratzka.  1984.  Costs and Benefits of Accessible Environments: A Case Study.
Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/cib/cibsthlm4.html
Dr. Adolf Ratzka.  2012.  The Independent Living movement paved the way: Origins of personal assistance in Sweden. Perspectives on personal assistance.
Dr. Adolf Ratzka.  2008.  Vem sparar i LSS-kommitténs förslag?
Internet publication URL:http://www.independentliving.org/ratzka20081001
Dr. Adolf Ratzka.  2003.  Kompromissförslag för rullstolstaxi, Till Stockholms läns landstingsfullmäktige.
Internet publikation URL: www.independentliving.org/taxi/ratzka20031005.html (In Swedish).  
Dr. Adolf Ratzka.  1998.  Independent Living in der Slowakei.".
1997 wann das Institut für Independent Living Projektverträge in der Slovakischen Republik im Rahmen des EU PHARE Programms für die Einführung eines Models für Persönliche Assistenz mit Bargeldleistungen an die Assistenznehmer sowie eines Models für ein rollstuhlgerechtes, der Öffentlichkeit zugängliches, Taxisystem mit Subventionierung der behinderten Reisenden. Der Artikel diskutiert die besonderen Schwierigkeiten und Möglichkeiten von benutzer-initierten und benutzer-betriebenen Lösungen in post-kommunistischen Gesellschaften. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs3/slovakiade.html (In German.)
Dr. Adolf Ratzka.  1994.  Independent Living and the family: The context of Costa Rica and Sweden.".
In the context of the family, Independent Living implies participation in all areas of human life, especially loving relationships, sexuality and parenthood. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs5/FamilyCRSweden.html
Dr. Adolf Ratzka.  2004.  The Swedish Personal Assistance Act of 1994.
Adolf Ratzka (Director of the Independent Living Institute), personal assistance and ventilator user for over 40 years, describes the features of the Swedish Personal Assistance Act of 1994 using his personal example as an illustration for the possibilities the policy opens up for people with extensive disabilities. Keynote address, Japanese Ventilator Users’ Network Symposium, Tokyo, 2004-06-23. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs6/ratzka20040623.html. Japanese version (PDF, 209 KB), Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs6/ratzka20040623-japanese.pdf.
Dr. Adolf Ratzka.  1996.  Introduction to direct payments for personal assistance.
For persons with extensive disabilities there are two key requirements: personal assistance and accessibility in the built environment including accessible housing. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs4/directpay.html
Dr. Adolf Ratzka.  2009.  Interview with Kalle Könkkölä November 2008.
Internet publication URL: https://www.independentliving.org/kalle_konkkola200811
PDF icon kalle_konkkola200811.pdf (31.76 KB)
Dr. Adolf Ratzka.  2002.  IT and disabled people's employment: opportunities and limits, The example of the Independent Living Institute.
Ratzka, Director, Independent Living Institute, describes some of the features of the Institute's Website and shows some of the possibilities offered by the internet to individuals with disabilities and their organizations. Pointing out the qualifications that working in this environment requires he concludes that IT cannot materially improve disabled people's employment situation as long as they do not have equal access to education, housing and transportation services. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs4/ratzka20020201.html
Dr. Adolf Ratzka.  1988.  Aufstand der Betreuten - Selbstrespekt als Richtschnur.
Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs4/ratzka88a.html (in German.)
Dr. Adolf Ratzka.  1993.  Moderna tider.
Ledare ur STILETTEN Nr. 1 1993. I: Institutet för Independent Living. 1993. "Hemtjänst i omdaning - möjligheter och decentraliseringens och privatiseringens tid, Dokumentation av STIL-hearing Stockholm 1993." Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs3/stil1993.html#11 (In Swedish.)
Dr. Adolf Ratzka.  1986.  Den lilla skillnaden - Apropå vår omslagsbild.
Från "Stiletten" nr. 4/86, oktober 1986. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs3/ar198610.html (In Swedish.)
Dr. Adolf Ratzka.  1992.  Tools for Power: A Resource Kit for Independent Living.
The aim of the "Resource Kit" is threefold: (1) to empower disabled individuals and organizations of disabled persons, (2) to serve as a handbook for professionals, and (3) to aid NGO's in their disability work. It was a project of the Independent Living Committee of Disabled Peoples' International.
Dr. Adolf Ratzka.  2004.  Richtlinien für eine beispielhafte nationale Gesetzgebung für persönliche Assistenz.
Die meisten Menschen, die bei alltäglichen Verrichtungen, wie beispielsweise beim Aufstehen, beim Gang zur Toilette oder beim Baden auf Hilfe von anderen angewiesen sind, haben lediglich die Wahl zwischen einem sehr eingeschränkten Leben in einem Wohnheim oder im Elternhaus. Wie muss eine ideale nationale Gesetzgebung aussehen, die es ihnen mit Hilfe von Persönlicher Assistenz ermöglicht, als gleichwertige Bürgerinnen und Bürger vollumfänglich am gesellschaftlichen Leben teilzunehmen und den ihnen zustehenden Platz in der Gesellschaft, d.h. in ihren Familien, ihrer Nachbarschaft, und am Arbeitsplatz einzunehmen? Das Euro­päische Kompetenzzentrum für Persönliche Assistenz ECEPA ist ein Projekt, das von Menschen geleitet wird, die selbst auf persönliche Assistenz angewiesen sind. Die vorliegenden Gesetzgebungsrichtlinien entstanden aus deren gemeinsamen konkreten Erfahrungen mit den verschiedenen Systemen der persönlichen Assistenz in acht europäischen Ländern. Ein Projekt des Europäischen Kompetenzzentrums für Persönliche Assistenz, European Center for Excellence in Personal Assistance (ECEPA); Internetveröffentlichung: www.independentliving.org/docs6/ratzka200410a-de.html und www.independentliving.org/docs6/ratzka200410a-de.pdf (59 KB). Übersetzung für die deutschsprachige Schweiz durch ZSL Zürich, Mai 2006.
Dr. Adolf Ratzka.  1991.  The case for accessibility legislation in a market economy." .
Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/cib/cibbudapest28.html
Dr. Adolf Ratzka.  1997.  Independent Living and Our Organizations: A Definition.
We are the last minority to fight for our rights and we will not go away. Even with the most sophisticated prevention, early detection and rehabilitation services there will always be people with disabilities and we have to build our societies in such a way that everybody can live in them with dignity and self-respect. Presentation at the conference "Our Common World" organized by Disability Rights Advocates Hungary in Siofok, Hungary, May 9-11, 1997.
Dr. Adolf Ratzka.  1993.  Vi behöver alternativ till färdtjänsten!.
STIL-modellen som visade sig så framgångsrik på personlig assistans-området kan med fördel användas även på andra områden som t ex individuella resor. Artikeln publicerades i DN i mars 1993. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/taxi/ar199303.html (In Swedish.)
Dr. Adolf Ratzka.  2003.  Checklist for Organizing Independent Living Events.
In this checklist the author covers the steps of planning, event format, event contents and media work which are crucial to the success of a workshop, training session, seminar or conference on Independent Living. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs6/ratzka200308a.html
Dr. Adolf Ratzka.  2017.  Application for funding granted by the Swedish Inheritance Fund for the project Disabled Refugees Welcome.
This is a translated version of the application submitted in July 2016. There were minor revisions and additions made later missing from this document.
Dr. Adolf Ratzka.  1998.  Crip Utopia.
Ironisk science fiction. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs4/ratzkacusv.html (In Swedish.)
Dr. Adolf Ratzka.  1982.  Hemservice - i vems regi?
Artikeln som lanserade begreppen "personlig assistent", "personlig assistans i brukarregi" och föreslog finansiering av personlig assistans genom riksförsäkringsverket. Artikeln publicerades redan redan år 1982 i Svensk Handikapptidskrift. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs3/ar1982.html (In Swedish.)
Dr. Adolf Ratzka.  1999.  A história da sociedade inclusiva na Europa.
Ratzka, Adolf. 1999-11. "A história da sociedade inclusiva na Europa." (In Portuguese.) Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs6/ratzka199911.html
Dr. Adolf Ratzka.  1992.  Personlig Assistans: Ett försök till en operationell definition.
"Personlig" assistans betyder att man som brukare utövar maximal kontroll över hur servicen organiseras och skräddarsyr den enligt sina individuella behov, sin förmåga, livssituation och sina strävanden. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/toolsforpower/tools15b.html (In Swedish.)
Dr. Adolf Ratzka.  1998.  Inledning på Konferensen om Lagstiftning för Mänskliga Rättigheter, Stockholm, Sweden, 24 augusti 1998.
Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs1/hr2.html (In Swedish.)
Dr. Adolf Ratzka.  1994.  Independent Living och familjen: ur Costa Ricanskt och Svenskt perspektiv." .
För begreppet familjen innebär konceptet om Independent Living deltagande i ett av de viktigaste områdena i livet; nämnligen kärleksrelationen, sexuallivet och föräldraskapet. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs5/FamilyCRSwedenSv.html (In Swedish.)
Dr. Adolf Ratzka.  2004.  The Swedish Personal Assistance Act of 1994.
Presentation in Helsinki, Finland, 2004-10-14. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs7/ratzka200410b.html
Dr. Adolf Ratzka.  2012.  Personal Assistance empowers persons with disabilities and benefits the national economy.
Direct Payments for Personal Assistance make demand-driven services possible that promote freedom of choice and quality. Supply-driven services, on the other hand, are often monopolistic in-kind services that force users to adapt their lives to the needs of the service provider. The Swedish Personal Assistance Act of 1994 is an example of a Direct Payments policy. Its outcome is discussed as well as its implications for the national economy in times of economic crisis.
Dr. Adolf Ratzka.  2009.  Adolf D. Ratzka, PhD, Interviews and Profiles.
Dr. Adolf Ratzka.  1996.  Introduktion till direktutbetalningar för personlig assistans.
För personer med omfattande funktionshinder finns två principiella förutsättningar: personlig assistans och tillgänglighet i den omgivande bebyggelsen, i vilket ingår tillgänglighet i bostaden. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs4/directpay2.html (In Swedish.)
Dr. Adolf Ratzka.  2002.  Projektet ‘Taxi för Alla’ (PDF, 60 KB).
Nollåtta. DHR Stockholmavdelning. No. 6, dec. 2002, s. 14. Internet publikation URL: www.independentliving.org/taxi/nollatta200212s14.pdf (PDF, 60 KB).
Dr. Adolf Ratzka.  1986.  Har samhället råd med oss?
Från "Stiletten" nr. 6/86, december 1986. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs3/ar198612.html (In Swedish.)
Dr. Adolf Ratzka.  2008.  No shortcuts on the road to employment for persons with disabilities.
Internet publication URL: http://www.independentliving.org/ratzka20080708
Dr. Adolf Ratzka.  1993.  Kort presentation av Independent Living-rörelsen.
I: Institutet för Independent Living. 1993. "Hemtjänst i omdaning - möjligheter och decentraliseringens och privatiseringens tid, Dokumentation av STIL-hearing Stockholm 1993." Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs3/stil1993.html#13 (In Swedish.) 
Dr. Adolf Ratzka.  2004.  Model National Personal Assistance Policy.
Most people who depend on the help of other persons in the activities of daily living such as getting up in the morning, toileting or bathing face very limited lives in residential institutions or parental homes. How must the ideal national policy for personal assistance look that empowers them to live in the community, as equal and fully participating citizens, taking their rightful place in family, neighborhood and society, with work and families of their own? The European Center for Excellence in Personal Assistance (ECEPA) is a project run by people who themselves depend on personal assistance. This model legislation was formulated using their combined personal experience with personal assistance services in eight European countries. A project of the European Center for Excellence in Personal Assistance (ECEPA).
Dr. Adolf Ratzka.  2011.  Independent Living for People with Disabilities of All Ages.
Given the increasing number of older persons relative to the working age population, record level taxes and baby boomers’ demands for self-determination and quality of life, which changes might the Scandinavian welfare model have to undergo in order to deliver long term care to all who need it? In Sweden, direct payments for personal assistance are paid to mainly younger persons with extensive disabilities. In terms of perceived quality and cost per hour of service, direct payments have been found to be more efficient than traditional local government services. But would this favorable experience hold for all persons in need of assistance with the activities of daily living – regardless of age, diagnosis and minimum needs? What would be such a policy’s cost and effects on the labor market? How could it be financed? Would it threaten younger disabled persons’ relative favorable present situation? Today’s Swedish policy of cash payments for the purchase of personal assistance services might be of interest as a long term care solution for tomorrow’s older persons.
Dr. Adolf Ratzka.  1992.  Towards an operational definition of Personal Assistance.
"Personal" assistance means that users exercise the maximum control over how services are organised and custom-design their services according to their individual needs, capabilities, life circumstances and aspirations.
Dr. Adolf Ratzka.  1997.  Eradication of "deviants": the dark side of the Swedish Model.".
Sweden's policy of forced sterilization of disabled people and others shocked the world. Dr. Adolf Ratzka comments on the news. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs5/Sterilization.html
Dr. Adolf Ratzka.  1993.  Personal Assistance and Disability Pride.
Adolf Ratzka reflects on disability pride through personal experiences, and the neccessity of personal assistance services to achieve independence and pride. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs4/pride93.html
Dr. Adolf Ratzka.  2003.  From patient to customer: Direct payments for assistive technology for disabled people’s self-determination.
The author, AT user and activist in the Independent Living movement, claiming that direct payments for AT result in better quality and cost-efficiency than services in kind, suggests a pilot project to test the hypothesis. Plenary paper presented at the 7th European Conference for the Advancement of Assistive Technology, "Shaping the Future", Dublin, Ireland, August 31st – 3rd September 2003. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs6/ratzka200308b.html.
Dr. Adolf Ratzka.  2012.  Projektansökan Assistanstips. PDF icon Ansokan_Assistanstips_ursprungliga_bilaga.pdf (313.64 KB)
Dr. Adolf Ratzka.  1998.  Crip Utopia.
Tongue-in-cheek science fiction. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs4/ratzkacu.html (In Swedish.)
Dr. Adolf Ratzka.  1996.  Independent Living and Attendant care in Sweden: A Consumer Perspective.
Internet publication URL: http://www.independentliving.org/docs1/ar1986spr.html
PDF icon ar1986spr.pdf (111.55 KB)
Dr. Adolf Ratzka.  1998.  Sexuality and people with disabilities: What experts often are not aware of.
For many of us who have extensive disabilities our sexual liberation does not so much depend on sex counselling or mechanical sex aids but on the availability of tax-funded personal assistance services which empower us to take control over our own lives. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs5/sexuality.html
Dr. Adolf Ratzka.  1993.  The user cooperative model in personal assistance: The example of STIL, the Stockholm Cooperative for Independent Living.
Origins and description of the first European personal assistance user cooperative, the STIL (Stockholm Cooperative for Independent Living) project as of 1993 which served as model for the Swedish Personal Assistance Reform of 1994 by STIL's founder. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs5/ratzka199301.html.
Dr. Adolf Ratzka.  2011.  A case for non-discrimination on grounds of ethnicity in government disability policy.
Presentation at National Conference, Commission for Equal Rights of Persons with Disabilities, Beer Sheba, Israel, December 1 2010
PDF icon 2010-12_Beer_Sheba_A_case_for_non-dicrimination_on_the_grounds_of_ethnicity_in_social_insurance.pdf (69.16 KB)
Dr. Adolf Ratzka.  1999.  Taxi för alla: Förslag till pilotprojekt.
För allmänheten utgör taxin ett viktigt komplement till de kollektiva färdmedlen buss, pendeltåg, spårvagn eller tunnelbana. För människor med funktionshinder gäller det i ännu högre grad. Vi vill visa att enkla och eleganta lösningar kan förbättra även vår rörlighet i stadstrafiken. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs5/taxiSv.html (In Swedish.)
Dr. Adolf Ratzka.  1998.  Brief Description of the Swedish Personal Assistance Act of 1994 (LASS).
For the "International Survey of Personal Assistance Schemes." Internet publication URLs: www.independentliving.org/docs1/ratzka1998lass.html and www.independentliving.org/panetwork/questionnaire.html
Dr. Adolf Ratzka.  2005.  Independent Living Empowers People with Disabilities.
In: Development Outreach. World Bank. July 2005. Reprinted from www1.worldbank.org/devoutreach/article.asp?id=317. The World Bank's magazine "Development Outreach" in a special edition presents articles from governments and international NGOs, illustrating different perspectives and approaches to facing the challenges of disability, and addressing the connection between disability and poverty. In his article about Independent Living Adolf Ratzka defines the concept and its implications for disability policy. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs7/ratzka200507.html
Dr. Adolf Ratzka.  2012.  Personal Assistance and the Crisis: Now is the time to promote Direct Payments for Personal Assistance.
Against the backdrop of the impact of the current economic crisis on persons who depend on practical assistance by other persons with the activities of daily living the author outlines arguments for direct payments for Personmal Assistance services. These services are demand driven, superior in quality and cost-efficiiency to supply driven services such as residential institutions and support the United Nations Convention Article 19 "living independently and being included in the community".
Dr. Adolf Ratzka.  2015.  Accessible cities consist of barrier-free housing.
In this presentation Dr. Adolf Ratzka emphasizes that city and housing planners still do not pay sufficient attention to barrier-free housing for people with disabilities and proposes the goal of general accessibility in the housing stock, in both new construction an renovation. Drawing on Swedish experience he claims that general residential accessibility would also imply savings to society in the form of lower costs due to fewer residential accidents particularly in the older population.
Dr. Adolf Ratzka.  1996.  Introduction to direct payments for personal assistance.

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