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2004
Seifu, Michael.  2004.  International cooperation - but how?
The author, a trained economist with a disability living and working in Ethiopia, describes the experience of disability in the context of a developing country. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/column/seifu200405.html
Dr. Adolf Ratzka.  2004.  The Swedish Personal Assistance Act of 1994.
Presentation in Helsinki, Finland, 2004-10-14. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs7/ratzka200410b.html
Dr. Adolf Ratzka.  2004.  The Swedish Personal Assistance Act of 1994.
Adolf Ratzka (Director of the Independent Living Institute), personal assistance and ventilator user for over 40 years, describes the features of the Swedish Personal Assistance Act of 1994 using his personal example as an illustration for the possibilities the policy opens up for people with extensive disabilities. Keynote address, Japanese Ventilator Users’ Network Symposium, Tokyo, 2004-06-23. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs6/ratzka20040623.html. Japanese version (PDF, 209 KB), Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs6/ratzka20040623-japanese.pdf.
Seifu, Michael.  2004.  A View from Ethiopia.
The author, a professional with a disability, reports about some of the difficulties faced by disabled people in Ethiopia. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/column/seifu200402.html
2003
Malinga, Joshua T.  2003.  The African View of Independent Living.
Joshua T. Malinga, Secretary General, Pan African Federation of the Disabled (PAFOD), and Past World Chairperson, Disabled Peoples' International (DPI) gives an overview of Indepedent Living in Africa. He concludes that, "Independent Living in Africa is basically in theory form and is still in its rudimental stages due to a number of factors." Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs6/malinga2003.html. In the forthcoming English version of: Alonso, J. Vidal Garcia. 2003. "El Movimiento de Vida Independiente, Experiencias Internacionales." ("The Independent Living Movement: International Experiences.") Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs6/alonso2003.pdf (In Spanish).
Campbell, Jane.  2003.  Building an Independent Living organisation fit for the twenty first century. Underpinning organisational development with empowering principals.
Dr. Jane Campbell, Chair of the Social Care Institute for Excellence in England, contemplates the future of Independent Living organisations, including work together with non-disabled persons (which she calls, "the mutuality route.") She concludes, "our independent living organisations to be fit for the 21st century we must have principles of: full inclusion, valuing diversity, equality of opportunity, human rights, civil rights, and citizenship. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs6/campbell20030523.html
Dr. Adolf Ratzka.  2003.  Checklist for Organizing Independent Living Events.
In this checklist the author covers the steps of planning, event format, event contents and media work which are crucial to the success of a workshop, training session, seminar or conference on Independent Living. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs6/ratzka200308a.html
Grunewald, Karl.  2003.  Close the Institutions for the Intellectually Disabled - Everyone Can Live in the Open Society. A pamphlet on the European Year of People with Disabilities.
A pamphlet on the European Year of People with Disabilities. Intenet publication URLs: www.independentliving.org/docs7/grunewald2003.html and www.independentliving.org/docs7/grunewald2003.pdf
Berg, Susanne.  2003.  The Craving of the Benevolent.
Evans, John.  2003.  Developments in Independent Living and Direct Payments in UK.
Presented at the European Network on Independent Living (ENIL) conference in Southampton, England, 7-9 March 2003. Internet publication URL: http://www.independentliving.org/docs6/evans200311.html
Nolan, Ann, Regan Colm.  2003.  Direct Payments Schemes for People with Disabilities - A Summary Guide, A new and innovative policy approach to providing services to disabled people in Ireland.
This information leaflet is based on the research project, "Direct Payments Schemes for People with Disabilities," carried out by the Bray Partnership in 2002 (see above). The aim of the leaflet is to provide information and create awareness about the concept of direct payments, as well as to commence a lobbying process for the introduction of a direct payments pilot programme. As such, the leaflet fulfills part of the recommendations of the research project relating to dissemination of information and increasing awareness. Bray Partnership, Ireland, Website: www.braypartnership.ie. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs6/bray200305-sum.pdf (155 KB). See also the main document, Internet publication URL:www.independentliving.org/docs6/bray200305.pdf (357 KB)
Uddin, Salah.  2003.  Disability Situation & Impact of ADD work in Bangladesh.
Action on Disability and Development (ADD), Bangladesh. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs6/uddin200309.html
Barnes, Colin.  2003.  Disability, the organization of work, and the need for change.
Professor Barnes, from the Centre for Disability Studies, University of Leeds, England points out that, "regardless of their role within the 'conventional' labour market, disabled people are both producers and consumers of a vast array of services upon which many non-disabled people depend; they are, therefore, a fundamental component within this equation." Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs6/barnes20030306.html
Zarb, Gerry.  2003.  The Economics of Independent Living.
English version of: Alonso, J. Vidal Garcia. 2003. "El Movimiento de Vida Independiente, Experiencias Internacionales." ("The Independent Living Movement: International Experiences.") : www.independentliving.org/docs6/alonso2003.pdf (In Spanish, PDF, 1.46 MB). Parts of the book are available in English.  
Bollard, Joe.  2003.  "ENIL’s Strasbourg Freedom Drive 2003." Radioprogram.
Bollard, Joe. 2003-09. "ENIL’s Strasbourg Freedom Drive 2003." .Listen-MP3 (30:28 minuter, 28,6 MB), listen-RealAudio, download-RealAudio (4.6 MB). Internet publication URLs: www.independentliving.org/radio/bollard200309.mp3, www.independentliving.org/radio/bollard200309.ram, www.independentliving.org/radio/bollard200309.rm, www.independentliving.org/radio/bollard200309.pdf, www.independentliving.org/radio/bollard200309sv.html, och www.independentliving.org/radio/bollard200309.html In September 2003, ninety assistance users from ENIL, the European Independent Living Movement, converged on the European Parliament in Strasbourg to present their key demands (see http://www.enil.eu.com/sfd/8demands.htm) for the inclusion of people, who need personal assistance, in mainstream society. Joe Bollard, the producer, is from Dublin, and is blind.
Heumann, Judith E.  2003.  Foreword to The Independent Living Movement: International Experiences.
Judith E. Heumann, MPH (Masters in Public Health), Advisor on Disability and Development, The World Bank tells about her own life and how as she was continually aware of the invisibility of disabled people in society. In her work with the World Bank, she has travelled widely and points out, "Poverty and social discrimination have gone hand in hand." In the forthcoming English version of: Alonso, J. Vidal Garcia. 2003. "El Movimiento de Vida Independiente, Experiencias Internacionales." ("The Independent Living Movement: International Experiences." In Spanish, PDF, 1.46 MB).
Dr. Adolf Ratzka.  2003.  From patient to customer: Direct payments for assistive technology for disabled people’s self-determination.
The author, AT user and activist in the Independent Living movement, claiming that direct payments for AT result in better quality and cost-efficiency than services in kind, suggests a pilot project to test the hypothesis. Plenary paper presented at the 7th European Conference for the Advancement of Assistive Technology, "Shaping the Future", Dublin, Ireland, August 31st – 3rd September 2003. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs6/ratzka200308b.html.
Campbell, Jane.  2003.  Get A Life! - Euthanasia and human value.
Dr. Jane Campbell, Chair of the Social Care Institute for Excellence in England, points out in this presentation at STIL in Stockholm that, "The normal response to suicidal depression is to treat the depression, not to push the person off the bridge!"
Belli, Raffaello.  2003.  Independent Living and some Italian Experiences.
Raffaello Belli presents an overview of the history of and current situation for people with disabilities in the various geographical areas in Italy with regard to the Independent Living movement and the availability of resources for Independent Living including direct payments. Presented at the European Network on Independent Living (ENIL) conference in Southampton, England, 7-9 March 2003. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs6/belli200303.html.
Dr. Adolf Ratzka.  2003.  Independent Living in Sweden.
Account of the emergence of the Independent Living movement in Sweden, the social policy climate at the time, its struggles, achievements and challenges from the perspective of the person who introduced the independent living concept to Sweden. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs6/ratzka200302b.html. In the forthcoming English version of: Alonso, J. Vidal Garcia. 2003. "El Movimiento de Vida Independiente, Experiencias Internacionales." ("The Independent Living Movement: International Experiences.") Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs6/alonso2003.pdf (In Spanish, PDF, 1.46 MB).
Martinez, Kathy.  2003.  Independent Living in the U.S. & Canada.
Kathy Martinez is International Director and Deputy Director of the World Institute on Disability, Oakland, USA. She gives an overview of events in the U.S. and Canada that made the independent living movement possible. She also covers the basic philosophy of the U.S. IL movement, as well as emerging issues and trends that challenge the IL movement. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs6/martinez2003.html. In the forthcoming English version of: Alonso, J. Vidal Garcia. 2003. "El Movimiento de Vida Independiente, Experiencias Internacionales." ("The Independent Living Movement: International Experiences.") Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs6/alonso2003.pdf (In Spanish).
Independent Living Institute.  2003.  Independent Living Institute (ILI) Annual Report 2002.
Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs1/ilanrp2002.html
Evans, John.  2003.  The Independent Living Movement in the UK.
John Evans was one of the founders of Project 81 that marked the beginning of the Independent Living Movement in the UK. Since 1996 he has been the chair of the European Network on Independent Living (ENIL). In this document he gives an overview of the origin of the Independent Living Movement in the UK, it's development and evolution, as well as the current situation.
Barnes, Colin.  2003.  Independent Living, Politics and Implications.
Published in the English version of: Alonso, J. Vidal Garcia. 2003. "El Movimiento de Vida Independiente, Experiencias Internacionales." ("The Independent Living Movement: International Experiences.") Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs6/alonso2003.pdf (In Spanish, PDF, 1.46 MB). Parts of the book available in English. Colin Barnes is Professor of Disability Studies and Director of the Centre for Disability Studies in the Department of Sociology and Social Policy at the University of Leeds, England. In this chapter of the book he gives a concise explanation of orthodox thinking on disability and an a different perspective developed by disabled people themselves. He then examines the concept of independent living and its impact on policy development.
Rajkov, Gordana.  2003.  Inependent Living and Yugoslav Experience.
The report presented on behalf Centre for Independent Living of Serbia, at the Europena Network on Independent Living (ENIL) Conference in Southampton, England, 7-9 March 2003. Gordana R. is a founding member of CIL in Serbia, and in the report she is explaining the current situation of disabled people in Serbia in the light of economic, social and political context, and CIL’s efforts to promote the idea of Independent Living Phylosophy in Serbia, particularly the PA Service, through pilot projects and research. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs6/rajkov200303.html
Rickert, Tom.  2003.  Making Access Happen – A guide for advocates and planners – HOW TO PROMOTE AND PLAN ACCESS for DISABLED PERSONS and ELDERS to BUSES, TRAINS, TAXIS and OTHER MODES OF TRANSPORT.
The purpose of this guide is to assist people and agencies around the world to work together to design public transport which is usable by passengers with disabilities. Internet publication URLs: www.independentliving.org/mobility/rickert200302.html and www.independentliving.org/mobility/rickert200302.pdf
Macfarlane, Ann.  2003.  Older People and Direct Payments.
Presented at the European Network on Independent Living (ENIL) conference in Southampton, England, 7-9 March 2003. "Older People and Direct Payments." Includes: Older People & Legislation on Assessment & Direct Payments, Summary of the legal provisions, by Ann Macfarlane MBE, March 2003. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs6/macfarlane200303.html
Berg, Susanne.  2003.  Personal Assistance in Sweden.
From the perspective of a personal assistance user, the author describes the background and development of the legislation in Sweden dealing with personal assistance through direct payment. The power issues surrounding establishment of the Stockholm Independent Living Cooperative (STIL) are also addressed. Plenary presentation at: Personal Assistance in Practice - A Conference Organised by the Swiss Association for Social Policy (Persönliche Assistenz in der Praxis - Eine Informationstagung der Schweizerischen Vereinigung für Sozialpolitik), Hotel Bern, Bern, Switzerland, 2003-05-20. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs6/berg20030520.html
Hasler, Frances.  2003.  Philosophy of Independent Living.
The author summarises the philosophy of independent living by quoting Philip Mason, John Evans, Adolf Ratzka, Martin McNaughton, and others. Included is a summary of the seven “basic needs” of independent living identified by Derbyshire CIL. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs6/hasler2003.html
Dr. Adolf Ratzka.  2003.  The prerequisites for de-institutionalization.
Paper presented at the European Congress on Independent Living, Tenerife April 24-26, 2003. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs6/ratzka200304.html.
O'brien, John, O'brien Connie Lyle.  2003.  Publications by John O'brien and Connie Lyle O'brien.
Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs6/obrien20031011.html  
Barnes, Colin.  2003.  Rehabilitation for Disabled People: a ‘sick’ joke?
Professor Barnes, from the Centre for Disability Studies, University of Leeds, England argues that the relationship between disability and rehabilitation is best explained in terms of three distinct but related definitions of disability: the orthodox ‘individualistic’ medical definition, the more liberal ‘inter-relational’ account, and the ‘radical‘ socio/political interpretation commonly referred to as the ‘social model of disability’. He concludes with a brief focus on alternative strategies generated by disabled people and their organisations. Internet publication URL: http://www.independentliving.org/docs6/barnes2003a.html
King, Audrey.  2003.  Remarkable Teachers – Mr. Winter.
This is an account by Audrey King, M.A., an internationally known writer, speaker, and advocate on disability issues, about Mr. Winter, a high school teacher who made a difference by making sure that Ms. King, in a wheelchair because of polio, was included in the school community in every way. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/column/king20030724.html
Martinez, Kathy, Duncan Barbara.  2003.  The Road to Independent Living in the USA: an historical perspective and contemporary challenges.
The authors (Kathleen Martinez, US National Council on Disability member and Deputy Director, World Institute on Disability, and Barbara Duncan, former Rehabilitation International information officer, DisabilityWorld co-editor) highlight the events and leaders that made the birth of the independent living movement possible. Also included are some basic philosophical tenets and assumptions that have guided the U.S. IL movement, as well as some observations regarding emerging issues and trends. Reprinted form "Disability World, A bimonthly web-zine of international disability news and views," Issue no. 20 September-October 2003. Internet publication URLs: www.disabilityworld.org/09-10_03/il/ilhistory.shtml and www.independentliving.org/docs6/martinez200309.html
Miles, M.  2003.  Segregated We Stand? The Mutilated Greeks' Debate at Persepolis, 330 BC
Probably the world's earliest recorded policy debate among a large group ofdisabled people. Also the first time a ruler changed his mind in response towhat they actually asked for. First published in Disability & Society 18 (7):865-79. Reproduced with permission of Carfax Publishing, Taylor & Francis,and with some revision. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs7/miles2003.html
Hasler, Frances.  2003.  A summary of the Department of Health (DoH) Figures for Direct Payments Users in the UK in 2002.
Presented at the European Network on Independent Living (ENIL) conference in Southampton, England, 7-9 March 2003. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs6/hasler200303.html
1st European Congress on Independent Living.  2003.  Tenerife Declaration - Promote Independent Living - End Discrimination against Disabled People.
The Tenerife Declaration, signed in Tenerife in April 2003, is a policy document agreed upon by four hundred participants from many European countries and calls for the European Union to implement the policies outlined in the Declaration. The Declaration calls for full and equal participation of disabled people in society through recognizing Independent Living as a fundamental right of all disabled people and implementing policies to facilitate Independent Living. From the1st European Congress on Independent Living, Tenerife April 24-26, 2003. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs6/tenrife20020426en.html
ULOBA–Cooperative on Personal Assistance.  2003.  Uloba - Independent Living Norway Cooperative for Consumer controlled Personal Assistance.
Presented at the European Network on Independent Living (ENIL) conference in Southampton, England, 7-9 March 2003. Internet publication URL: http://www.independentliving.org/docs6/uloba200303.html
2002
Catholic Relief Services (CRS) Bosnia-Herzegovina,.  2002.  Activist Handbook.
Internet publication URLs: www.independentliving.org/docs7/crs-activist-handbook.html and www.independentliving.org/docs7/crs-activist-handbook.pdf (526 KB).
Miles, M.  2002.  Community and Individual Responses to Disablement in South Asian Histories: Old Traditions, New Myths?
Documented histories of South Asian societies provide evidence that disabled people played various roles in their families and communities, sometimes with a good deal of independence. The commonest responses have been top-down, charitable or restrictive; yet some evidence challenges the stereotypes and suggests that disablement historically evoked a wider range of responses and initiative. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs3/miles2002a.html
Nakanishi, Yukiko.  2002.  Development and Self-Help Movement of Women with Disabilities.
This article focuses on development assistance models and philosophies for women with disabilities who struggle to achieve independence in Asia, first from the viewpoint of a development program organizer and then from the viewpoint of a witness of empowered self-help movements. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs5/nakanishi.html
Bonnie, Selina.  2002.  Facilitated Sexual Expression in the Independent Living Movement in Ireland.
In her paper submitted for the Degree of Masters of Arts in Disability Studies at The University of Leeds, Bonnie Selina explores facilitated sexual expression in the Irish Independent Living Movement including how widespread facilitated sexual expression is in the Irish Independent Living movement and the legal and ethical implications of this form of assistance, particularly in the Irish social context. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs6/bonnie200208.html
Berg, Susanne.  2002.  I think I finally made the grade, I've become world's worst on empathy, by Susnnne Berg, June 2002.
Independent Living Institute.  2002.  Independent Living Institute (ILI) Annual Report 2001.
Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs1/ilanrp2001.html
Dr. Adolf Ratzka.  2002.  IT and disabled people's employment: opportunities and limits, The example of the Independent Living Institute.
Ratzka, Director, Independent Living Institute, describes some of the features of the Institute's Website and shows some of the possibilities offered by the internet to individuals with disabilities and their organizations. Pointing out the qualifications that working in this environment requires he concludes that IT cannot materially improve disabled people's employment situation as long as they do not have equal access to education, housing and transportation services. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs4/ratzka20020201.html
Campbell, Jane.  2002.  Think Piece - 'Sticks and Stones' But words are hurting!.
Dr. Jane Campbell, Chair of the Social Care Institute for Excellence in England, discusses the importance of language and particular words. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs6/campbell2002a.html
Dr. Adolf Ratzka.  2002.  User control over services as a precondition for self-determination.
Plenary presentation at Danish EU Presidency Seminar on "Quality of Life and Quality in Services for People with Disabilities," Copenhagen, October 31-November 1, 2002. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs4/ar200210.html
2001
McLaughlin, Dara.  2001.  Culture and Identity.
   
Bush, George.  2001.  Executive Order: Community-Based Alternatives for Individuals with Disabilities.
On June 18, 2001 US President Bush issued an Executive Order to swiftly implement the Supreme Court decision and help individuals with disabilities move into the community. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs3/gb010618.html
Walker, Pamela.  2001.  A Generic Orientation to Doing Attendant Work.
This manual provides a general introduction to the work of personal assistants, and is especially helpful to new assistants. It covers a wide range of topics, and explains the purpose of personal assistance and the nature of the work, to the extent that generalisations are possible. Revised online publication. First published by Center for Independent Living Berkeley, California 1986. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs2/walker2001.pdf
Independent Living Institute.  2001.  Independent Living Institute (ILI) Annual Report 2000.
Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs1/ilanrp2000.html
Stone, Karen, Dart Jr. Justin.  2001.  Justin Dart, Jr. - A Peek of Insight.
   
Rioux, Marcia.  2001.  Let the World Know - Report of a Seminar on Human Rights and Disability Held at Almåsa Conference Centre, Stockholm, Sweden, November 5-9, 2000.
Internet publication URLs: www.independentliving.org/docs2/rioux00.html, www.independentliving.org/docs2/rioux00.doc, www.independentliving.org/docs2/rioux00.pdf
Finkelstein, Vic.  2001.  A Personal Journey Into Disability Politics.
Finkelstein reviews the development of radical British disability organizations and his own personal history and thought in their evolution. Finkelstein, a psychologist by training, was tutor in Disability Studies at the Open University and is now Visiting Senior Research Fellow in the Centre for Disability Studies, Leeds University. Finkelstein has a disability. Internet publication URLs: www.independentliving.org/docs3/finkelstein01a.html and www.independentliving.org/docs3/finkelstein01a.pdf
Duyvendak, J W, Melief W B A M.  2001.  Pioneering Personal Assistance in Slovenia: An Evaluation of the YHD Pilot Project on Personal Assistance in Slovenia.
YHD-Association for Theory and Culture of Disability, an organization run by and for people with disabilities and subscribing to the Independent Living philosophy, started a pilot project in Ljubljana with personal assistance for deinstitutionalization and equal opportunities of assistance users. Internet publication URLs: http://www.independentliving.org/docs3/duve2001.html and http://www.independentliving.org/files/duve2001.pdf.
Disability Intergroup.  2001.  Press Release: Disabled People to Finally Catch the Bus - Victory for Disabled People on Bus and Coach Directive.
All newly purchased buses throughout the European Union must be fully accessible to people with disabilities according to the Directive. This was the result of nine years of campaigning by disabled people, together with the Disability Intergroup of the European Parliament. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs1/pr20010216.html
Barnes, Colin.  2001.  Rethinking Care From the Perspective of Disabled People.
Conference Report and Recommendations (Draft). World Health Organization Disability and Rehabilitation Team. In this report to the United Nations World Health Organization, Professor Barnes, from the Centre for Disability Studies, University of Leeds, England, recommends that member nations adopt a holistic approach that includes the introduction of policies to eliminate poverty and secure equal access to all community based services and facilities. These include medical services, education, employment, housing, transport, public amenities etc. The responsibility of national governments for introducing and financing these developments is also addressed. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs6/barnes200106.pdf (PDF, 112 KB).
Stone, Karen G.  2001.  Ugly.
Campbell, Jane.  2001.  Valuing Diversity: The Disability Agenda - We've Only Just Begun.
Dr. Jane Campbell, Chair of the Social Care Institute for Excellence in England, presented this paper at the Bristol University Centenary Celebration on 9th November 2001, as part of their series of lectures on Valuing Diversity. She concludes, amongst other things that, "Well firstly we have to acknowledge that independent living is a human rights issue. Secondly, society has to learn not to retreat from the nettle even though it causes pain. The voice of the so-called radicals that dare to tell it how it is must not be dismissed." Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs6/campbell20011109.html
Tusler, Anthony.  2001.  Wheelchair Ease: The Internet, England, & My Summer Vacation.
Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs3/tusler01.html
2000
Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, United Nations.  2000.  2000 ESCAP HRD Award, Theme: HRD for the Empowerment of People with Disabilities.
The United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) established the ESCAP HRD Award in 1990 which is presented annually in recognition of exemplary work in the field of human resources development (HRD). The theme of the award for the year 2000 was “Empowerment of People with Disabilities.” This brochure presents a history of the award as well as eligibility requirements and application procedures. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs2/escap2000hrd.html
Corcoran, Maurice.  2000.  Accessibility for All: The Australian Experience.
Maurice Corcoran’s article is an example and encouragement for the movement for Buses For All in other countries. In it, he traces the history leading up to the milestone decision of October 12, 2000 by the Australian Federal Cabinet, requiring all intra-city buses to be of low-floor type using boarding aids for wheelchair users in the form of ramps. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs1/corcoran2000.html
Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission, Australia.  2000.  Accessibility of electronic commerce and new service and information technologies for older Australians and people with a disability - Report of the Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission on a reference from the Attorney-General.
Submissions and research have confirmed and added to the Commission’s initial understanding that digital technologies offer great potential in providing more effective and economical access to government and business information and services, and improved prospects for equal opportunity in many areas of life including education, for all Australians including older people and people with a disability. Work for this report has confirmed to the Commission that physical barriers, affordability and equipment access barriers, and attitudinal and awareness barriers are preventing some Australians with a disability and some older Australians from having equally effective access to e-commerce and other services using new technologies. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs4/hreo2000.html
Mates, Barbara T.  2000.  Adaptive Technology for the Internet: Making Electronic Resources Accessible to All - The Online Version.
American Library Association. ISBN 0-8389-0752-0. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs6/mates2000.html
Light, Richard.  2000.  Beijing Declaration on Disabled Persons in the New Millennium.
This editorial by Richard Light, Research & Publications Director of Disability Awareness in Action first presents the content of a resolution taken at the World NGO Summit on Disability in Beijing regarding an international convention on the rights of all disabled people. He then goes on to decry the number of expert conferences, special programmes and political initiatives that have failed to yield real progress with regard to action on discrimination against people with disabilities. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs6/light200003.html
Disability Net 2000.  2000.  Buses for All (Europe) - A Brief Presentation.
A briefing outlining the Australian government’s plans to improve transportation accessibility for disabled people. Other briefings from the year 2000 detail the progress and problems of the EU Bus and Coach Directive and a campaign by the action group, Buses for All (Europe), to make buses accessible for all people with disabilities. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs1/buses3.htm
Tilly, Jane, Wiener Joshua M, Evans Cuellar Alison.  2000.  Consumer-Directed Home and Community Services Programs in Five Countries: Policy Issues for Older People and Government.
This Urban Institute study reviews community services programs in five countries--Austria, France, Germany, the Netherlands, and the US - and shows that direct payments for personal assistance and long term care hold great promise for consumer-directed high quality services. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs4/urbani2000.html
King, Audrey.  2000.  The Darker Ages: What's Wrong With Institutions?
Audrey King, M.A., an internationally known writer, speaker, and advocate on disability issues, shares observations about life in institutions gathered from 30 years of working as a rehabilitation professional. She describes how institutional structures pose a consistent dynamic tension between individual autonomy and system procedures, which are often resistant to change and necessarily geared to cost and procedure efficiencies.
Byrnes, Andrew.  2000.  Disability rights and human rights: plunging into the 'mainstream'?
Andrew Byrnes, of the Faculty of Law at The University of Hong Kong, writes that disability issues are for the most part treated as social issues instead of mainstream human rights issues, similar to women’s rights issues fifteen years ago. He outlines ways in which disability rights issues can be moved onto a more prominent place on the international human rights agenda. He also outlines gains which have already been made as a result of these efforts. In: "Let the World Know - Report of a Seminar on Human Rights and Disability Held at Almåsa Conference Centre, Stockholm, Sweden, November 5-9, 2000." (PDF, 610 KB, Word 97, 564 KB.) Pre-paper 5. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs2/byrnes00.pdf. In Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs2/rioux00.pdf and www.independentliving.org/docs2/rioux00.doc
Disability Awareness in Action (DAA).  2000.  Disability Tribune, Special Issue-Disability and bioethics.
The manual contains a definition of biotechnology, its proposed uses, its regulation, a list of related sites, and a discussion of health inequality as a result of economic inequality in relation to the issue of biotechnology. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs2/daa200002.html
Segalman, Bob.  2000.  Expansion of Telephone Service For Many People With Speech Disabilities.
Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs4/segalman.html
Baker, Jordan.  2000.  Federal Report Recommends Making Technology Access Easier For People With Disabilities (Australia).
This article recommends strategies for helping the elderly and people with disabilities access new information technologies. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs1/baker200006.html
Cummings, Betsy.  2000.  Gaining Entry.
Betsy Cummings examines the problems facing people with disabilities in hotels, conference centers, and public buildings worldwide, by analyzing the policies of a sample of countries on different continents. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs4/cummings2000.html
Stone, Karen.  2000.  A Healthy Dissension.
Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/column/stone1_00.html
Internet Industry Association of Australia.  2000.  IIA Warns SOGOC: Disability Web Decision Puts Businesses on Notice.
In the wake of the court decision against the Sydney Olympics organizers, Australian businesses and authorities oversee their websites' access. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs5/sydney-olympics-blind-accessibility-decision-press-release.html
Independent Living Institute.  2000.  Independent Living Institute (ILI) Annual Report 1999.
Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs1/ilanrp1999.html
Ntsika Enterprise Promotion Agency.  2000.  Innovative Disabled Entrepreneur Award Scheme (IDEAS) - Calling All Entrepreneurs With Disabilities.
Promoting entrepreneurship of persons with disabilities through competition and awards: an example from South Africa. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs5/Innovative-Disabled-Entrepreneur-Award-Scheme.html
Rosenthal, Eric.  2000.  International human rights protections for institutionalised persons with disabilities: an agenda for international action.
In: "Let the World Know - Report of a Seminar on Human Rights and Disability Held at Almåsa Conference Centre, Stockholm, Sweden, November 5-9, 2000." Pre-paper 4. Internet publication URLs: www.independentliving.org/docs2/rioux00.html, www.independentliving.org/docs2/rioux00.doc, www.independentliving.org/docs2/rioux00.pdf
Stone, Karen G.  2000.  The Journey from Disability Shame to Disability Pride.
Hawkins, Candace.  2000.  Memo to the World.
Are public funds to be used for nursing homes or for paying personal assistants in one's own home? Missouri opened the way to freedom. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs4/hawkins2000.html
Kawauchi, Yoshi.  2000.  New Japanese Legislation on Accessible Public Transportation.
This brief comment by Yoshi Kawauchi, architect, access specialist and advocate, Tokyo, Japan, is critical of the new Japanese legislation on access in public transportation. While appreciating the law as a first step towards improvement, he is critical because the law is not a civil rights law and has no procedure for consumers to file complaints, does not include taxicabs because of political pressure, and does not cover people with developmental disabilities or psychiatric disabilities. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs1/japan001027.html
Mohit, Anuradha, Rungta S K.  2000.  Preliminary ideas and procedures for ensuring systematic international collection of information.
In: "Let the World Know - Report of a Seminar on Human Rights and Disability Held at Almåsa Conference Centre, Stockholm, Sweden, November 5-9, 2000." Pre-paper 7. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs2/mohit00.pdf. In Internet publication URLs: www.independentliving.org/docs2/rioux00.pdf and www.independentliving.org/docs2/rioux00.doc
Light, Richard.  2000.  Recording human rights abuses against persons with disabilities: practical issues revealed by the Disability Awareness in Action Human Rights Project.
In: "Let the World Know - Report of a Seminar on Human Rights and Disability Held at Almåsa Conference Centre, Stockholm, Sweden, November 5-9, 2000." Pre-paper 2. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs2/docs2/light00.pdf. In Internet publication URLs: www.independentliving.org/docs2/rioux00.pdf and www.independentliving.org/docs2/rioux00.doc
Disabled Peoples' International (DPI) Europe.  2000.  The Right to Live and be Different.
In February 2000, 130 disabled people in twenty-seven countries discussed bioethics and human rights, and it is with pride that we make the following declaration. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs1/dpi022000.html
Vasey, Sean.  2000.  The Rough Guide to Managing Personal Assistants.
"Having PAs enabled me to find out who I am and now enables me to be who I am." If you are a disabled person and about to start receiving a Direct Payment to employ your own personal assistants (PAs), this book aims to give you a flavour of what it is like; the joys and the challenges. The book covers recruitment, managing, using PAs in social situations and at work, and dealing with problems. Put together by Sian Vasey with cartoons by David Shenton.
Miles, M.  2000.  Signing in the Seraglio: mutes, dwarfs and jestures at the Ottoman Court 1500 - 1700.
Deaf people, known as 'mutes', worked in the Turkish Ottoman court from the fifteenth to the twentieth century in various roles along with dwarfs and other entertainers. Their signing system became popular, was used regularly by hearing people including successive Sultans, and was reportedly capable of expressing ideas of whatever complexity. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs5/mmiles2.html
Carter QC, The Hon William.  2000.  Sydney Olympics 2000 Website Accessibility Decision: Bruce Lindsay Maguire vs Sydney Organising Committee for the Olympic Games: Reasons for Decision of the Hon. William Carter QC, Inquiry Commissioner..
Sydney Olympics organizers were taken to court for having an inaccessible Website, which is in violation of the Australian Disability Discrimination Act of 1992, and lost the case. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs5/sydney-olympics-blind-accessibility-decision.html
Maine CITE Coordinating Center.  2000.  Universal Design: Maine's Opportunity To Lead the Way To Information Access For Everyone.
In September 1997, leaders from Maine State government, business, education, and the non-profit community gathered for the Conference, Maximizing Economic Potential. The Conference looked at how government and education can lead the way in ensuring that information technologies accommodate differing needs and provide access for everyone. This report is the outcome of that effort. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs5/maine-web-accessibility.html
TOMRIC Agency.  2000.  Why People with Disabilities in Tanzania Deserve Economic Empowerment.
Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs1/tomric200008.html
Brown, Steven E.  2000.  Zona and Ed Roberts: Twentieth Century Pioneers. Disability Studies Quarterly.
Brown, Steven E. 2000. "Zona and Ed Roberts: Twentieth Century Pioneers." In: Disability Studies Quarterly 20 (1)(Winter 2000), 26-42. Brown, Co-Founder of the Institute on Disability Culture, in the United States, has written a biographical description of two disability rights pioneers. Many people know the history and legacy of Ed Roberts, but far fewer realize the impact of his mother, Zona, and her own contributions apart from Ed to the disability rights movement. This is their story. Internet publication URLs: http://www.independentliving.org/docs3/brown00a.html and http://www.independentliving.org/docs3/brown00a.pdf (132 KB.)
1999
Breisky, Karen.  1999.  The ABCs of hiring PCAs.
Personal care attendant work pays little, and much of the work is menial - so the search for caring, competent, reliable people is arduous. Karen Breisky refers to her own experiences in offering tips for hiring assistants. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs4/breisky99.html.
Wehrli, Peter.  1999.  About the Center of Independent Living Zürich.
Switzerland does not yet know the concept of personal assistance and provides almost no financial means to live outside institutions. The Swiss IL movement has an uphill battle. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs3/zfsl.html
Kafka, Bob.  1999.  Act calls for care choice.
Bob Kafka outlines the Medicaid Community Attendant Services Act, MiCASA. The bill would allow individuals the choice to use their entitlements for community-based services (personal assistance services). Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs4/kafka.html
Smith, Eleanor.  1999.  A Call for "Visitability.
Despite improvements in disability access, homes still routinely exclude people with disabilities. Eleanor Smith suggests a different approach to construction and modification. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs4/smith.html
Brown, Steven E.  1999.  The Curb Ramps of Kalamazoo: Discovering Our Unrecorded History.
Dr. Steven E. Brown, Co-Founder of the Institute on Disability Culture, in the United States, learned by accident of a city program to implement curb cuts in Kalamazoo, Michigan in the U.S. in the mid-1940s. This is the story of how that occurred. In: Disability Studies Quarterly, 19 (3), (Summer 1999), 203-05. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs3/brown99a.html.
Hrdá, Jana.  1999.  Czech Republic warehouses disabled people - Money Earmarked for Creation of Institutions.
Jana Hrdá, Director of the Prague Center for Independent Living, appeals to the international disability community to write letters protesting the planned construction of more institutions for disabled people in her country. A letter by the Director of the Independent Living Institute points out the detrimental psychological, social and economic effects of warehousing disabled people in institutions. Instead, evidence shows that funds spent on personal assistance and housing adaptation yield high returns for individual and society. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs1/czechinst.html
Golden, Marilyn.  1999.  Department of Transportation (DOT) Finishes Greyhound Regulation -- Proposes Bus Companies Must Document Lack of Service.
Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs6/golden1999.html
Kelles-Viitanen, Anita.  1999.  Disability, Poverty Reduction and Social Development.
Anita Kelles-Viitanen of the Asian Development Bank examines the objectives of the Bank in regard to poverty reduction and improving the quality of life of all people in Asia and the Pacific. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs1/dpidi2992.html
Oliver, Mike.  1999.  Disabled people and the inclusive society: or the times they really are changing.
Mike Oliver looks at semantics and use of words in addressing disability issues, and refers to Bob Dylan's "The times they are a-changing" to make his point about exclusion and discrimination. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs4/oliver.html
Literacy Volunteers of America.  1999.  Disabled to Raise Funds for Non-Disabled - Labor Day weekend radio event to benefit Literacy Volunteers of America.
To show that people with disabilities – like all other humans – can be both on the receiving and giving end, "On A Roll," the weekly syndicated radio program on disability lifestyle issues, produced by people with disabilities, raised funds for Literacy Volunteers of America, Inc. (LVA) through an on-air event on Sept. 5, 1999. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs6/onarollathon1999.html

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